نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانش آموخته دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشگاه قم، قم، ایران

چکیده

با گسترش سازمان‌های بین‌المللی به‌عنوان تابعان فعال حقوق بین‌الملل، نقش آنان در ارتکاب اعمال متخلفانۀ بین‌المللی نیز افزایش یافته است. سازمان‌های بین‌المللی نه‌تنها به‌طور مستقل مرتکب عمل متخلفانه بین‌المللی می‌شوند، بلکه در اعمال متخلفانه‌ای که از سوی دولت‌ها یا دیگر سازمان‌ها ارتکاب می‌یابد نیز به‌نحوی نقش ایفا می‌کنند. همین مسئله موجب شده است تا افزون‌بر اعمال مسئولیت مستقل سازمان بین‌المللی، پرداختن به مسئولیت سازمان در خصوص اعمال دولت یا سازمان بین‌المللی دیگر ضروری بنماید؛ مقوله‌ای که از آن به مسئولیت اشتقاقی یاد می‌شود و پیشتر در خصوص دولت‌ها مطرح شده است. مسئولیت اشتقاقی سازمان‌های بین‌المللی به‌رغم شباهت‌هایی که با همین مفهوم در خصوص دولت‌ها دارد، تفاوت‌های نه‌چندان کمی در این زمینه وجود دارد که شایستۀ تدقیق است؛ حال آنکه کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل به‌روشنی آن را در مجموعه مواد 2011 خود در خصوص مسئولیت سازمان‌های بین‌المللی تبیین نکرده است. چهار حالت کمک یا مساعدت، هدایت و کنترل، اجبار و گریز از تعهد بین‌المللی، وضعیت‌های حصری مسئولیت اشتقاقی سازمان‌های بین‌المللی‌اند که در هر یک مسئولیت به‌نحو متفاوتی تسهیم می‌شود. دامنۀ این توزیع بسیار گسترده است، به‌گونه‌ای که در آن هم نسبیت به چشم می‌خورد و هم معافیت یک طرف از مسئولیت وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Conceptual Framework of Derivative Responsibility of International Organizations in International Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Momenirad 1
  • Mohammad Setayeshpur 2

2 Ph.D. in International Law, International Law Department, Law Faculty, University of Qom, Qom, Iran

چکیده [English]

Increasing international organizations as active subjects of international law, their role in the commission of internationally wrongful acts has also increased. Organizations not only have committed internationally wrongful acts independently, but also playing a rloe in wrongful acts committed by states or other international organizations in some way. This has led to address the international responsibility of international organizations in connection with the act of state or other international organizations in addition to the independent responsibility of international organizations. It has been known as derivative responsibility and has been addressed in field of state responsibility before. While international law commission (hereinafter I. L. C.) has not clarified it well in its draft articles on responsibility of international organizations (2011) (hereinafter ARIO), there are considerable differents which need to be explained, despite the similarities between the concept of derivative responsibility of international organizations and the said conception in the field of state responsibility. Aid or assistance, direction and control, coercion and circumvention are regarded as four exclusive situations in the scope of derivative responsibility of international organizations which the contribution (also known as distribution) of responsibility is not similar in each of the situations in question. The spectrum of the said distribution is very broad so relatively in responsibility and also circumstance in precluding wrongfulness would be observed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Responsibility
  • international organization
  • Derivative Responsibility
  • Secondary Responsibility
  • Indirect Responsibility

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

1. ابراهیم‌گل، علیرضا (1392). اقدامات متقابل و مسئولیت بین‌المللی ناشی از منافع جمعی، چ اول، تهران: خرسندی.

2. زمانی، سید قاسم (1392). حقوق سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، چ اول، تهران: مؤسسۀ مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.

3. ستایش‌پور، محمد (1394). مسئولیت اشتقاقی در نظام مسئولیت بین‌المللی (با تأکید بر طرح 2001 مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت‌ها و طرح 2011 مسئولیت سازمان‌های بین‌المللی)، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران.

4. شاو، ملکم (2014). حقوق بین‌الملل: مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت و مسئولیت کیفری فردی، ترجمۀ اسماء سالاری، 1394، چ اول، تهران: خرسندی.

5. کرافورد، جیمز (2013). حقوق مسئولیت بین‌المللی: قواعد عمومی، ترجمۀ علیرضا ابراهیم‌گل و دیگران، 1395، قلم سنگلج.

 

ب) مقالات

6. قاسمی، غلامعلی؛ تسخیری، محمدصالح (1396). «شخصیت حقوقی بین‌المللی سازمان‌های غیردولتی، پژوهش حقوق عمومی، ش 55، ص 243-215.

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

7. Brownlie, Ian (2005). The Responsibility of States for the Acts of International Organizations in Maurizzio Ragazzi (edn.) International Responsibility Today. Essays in Memory of Oscar Shachter, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

8. Cortes Martin, Jose Manuel (2013). European Exceptionalism in International Law? The European Union and the System of International Responsibility in Maurizzio Ragazzi (edn.) Responsibility of International Organizations. Essays in Memory of Sir Ian Brownlie, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

9. Fry, James D. (2014). Attribution of Responsibility, in Andre Nollkaemper and Ilias Plakokefalos (edn.) Principles of Shared Responsibility in International Law: An Apprisal of the State of the Art, Cambridge University Press.

10. Lindblom, Anna-Karin (2010). The Responsibility of Other Entities: Non-Governmental Organizations, in the Law of International Responsibility, James Crawford, Alain Pellet and Simon Olleson (edn.), Oxford University Press.

11. Moldner, Mirka (2012). “Responsibility of International Organizations: Introducing the ILC’s DARIO”, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations law, vol. 16.

12. Rieu-Clarke, Alistair (2005). International Law and Sustainable Development, IWA Publishing.

13. Quigley, John (1986). Complicity in International Law: A New Direction in the Law of State Responsibility, British Yearbook of International Law.

14. Sarooshi, Dan (2013). International Organizations and State Responsibility in Maurizzio Ragazzi (edn.) Responsibility of International Organizations: Essays in Memory of Sir Ian Brownlie, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

15. Wood, Michael (2013). ‘Weighing the Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations in Maurizzio Ragazzi (edn.) Responsibility of International Organizations: Essays in Memory of Sir Ian Brownlie, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

 

B) Articles

16. Ahlborn, Christiane (2012). The Use of Analogies in Drafting the Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations - An Appraisal of the ‘Copy - Paste Approach’, International Organizations Law Review, Vol. 9.

17. Blokker, Niels (2010). Abuse of the Members: Questions Concrning Draft Article 16 of the Draft Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations, International Organizations Law Review, vol. 7.

18. Fry, James D. (2007). “Coercion, Causation and the Fictional Elements of Indirect State Responsibility”, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, vol. 40.

19. Kingsbury, Benedict (2009). “The Concept of ‘Law’in Global Administrative Law”, European Journal of International Law, vol. 20.

20. Kuijper, Pieter J. (2010). “Introduction: Attributed or Direct Responsibility or Both?” International Organizations Law Review, vol. 7.

21. Nedeski, Natasa and Nollkaemper, Andre (2012). ‘Responsibility of International Organizations in Connection with Acts of States’, International Organizations Law Review, vol. 9.

22. Nollkaemper, Andre (2012). Joint Responsibility in International Law: Revisiting the Oil Platform Case, in Presentation of the Intricacies of Joint and Several Responsibility, University of Amsterdam – Faculty of Law, 24 may.

23. Paasivirta, Esa (2010). “Responsibility of a Member State of an International Organization: Where Will it End? Comments on Article 60 of the ILC Draft on the Responsibility of International Organizations”, International Organizations Law Review, vol. 7.

24. Reinsch, August (2010). “Aid or Asistance and Direction and Control Between States and International Organizations in the Commission of Internationally Wrongful Acts”, International Organizations Law Review, vol. 7.

25. Ryngaert, Cedryc and Buchanan, Holly (2011).” Member State Responsibility for the Acts of International Organizations”, Utrecht Law Review, vol. 7.

C) Documents

26. A/66/10 (2011). ILC Draft Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations (known as ARIO).

27. A/56/10 (2001). ILC Draft Articles on International Responsibility of States  (known as ARSIWA).

28. A/CN.4/553 (2005). ILC Third Report on Responsibility of International Organizations.

29. A/CN/4.556 (2005).

30. A/C.6/59/SR.22 (2004).

31. T-85/09 (2010). Yassin Abdullah Kadi v. European Commission, Judgment of the General Court, 30 September.

32. ICJ (2000). Case Concerning Legality of Use of Force (Yugoslvia v. France), Preliminary Objections of French Republic, 5 July.

33. S/RES/929 (1994).

 

D) Internet Resources

34. http://www.icj-cij.org/en/case/107 (Last visited: 30.01.18)

35. www.nytimes.com (Last visited: 22.09.17)

36. http://sharesproject.nl/ (Last visited: 21.09.17)

37. http://legal.un.org/ilc/guide/gfra.shtml (Last visited: 22.09.17)

38. http://sedayemellat.ir/bey/3006-2016-05-31-06-44-36 (Last visited: 30.01.18)