نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دوره دکتری تخصصی حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشکده حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی و عضو هیئت‌ علمی مدعو گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

اگرچه بیشتر اطلاعات به‌دست‌آمده از بقایای زیرآب در نتیجۀ فعالیت‌هایی است که هدف اولیۀ آنها میراث فرهنگی زیرآب نبوده، با وجود این، کنوانسیون 2001 یونسکو در اساس برای پرداختن به فعالیت‌هایی که به‌طور تصادفی بر میراث مزبور اثر می‌گذارند، طراحی نشده است. تنها مادۀ 5 کنوانسیون به‌صراحت به این موضوع پرداخته و در چند مقررۀ دیگر به‌طور تلویحی به این فعالیت‌ها اشاره ‌شده است. در مناطق دریایی تا 12 مایل از خط مبدأ، این دسته از فعالیت‌ها تحت پوشش مقررات حفاظتی کنوانسیون مزبور قرار ندارند و در نتیجه همچنان ذیل مقررات عام کنوانسیون 1982 قرار می‌گیرند. اما در مناطق دریایی فراسوی 12 مایل، در عمل هر گونه فعالیتی می‌تواند سازوکارهای گزارش‌دهی، اطلاع‌رسانی و محافظت را فعال کند، بنابراین از این‌ نظر تمایزی میان نوع فعالیت‌های دولت‌ها در این مناطق دریایی وجود ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Legal Status of Activities Affecting Underwater Cultural Heritage

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Razavirad 1
  • Janet Blake 2

1 Ph.D. Candidate of Public International Law, Department of Public & International Law, College of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Visiting Professor, Department of Public & International Law, College of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Although much of the information derived from underwater remains is the result of activities whose primary object has not been the protection of underwater cultural heritage, UNESCO’s Convention on Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001), in principle, was not designed to address activities incidentally affecting underwater cultural heritage. Only article 5 of the Convention explicitly addresses this issue while these activities are implicitly referred to in several regulations. In maritime zones lying within 12 miles from the baseline, these activities are not subject to the provisions of the Convention and thus fall under the general provisions of the 1982 Convention. In those maritime zones beyond 12 miles, in practice, any activity may activate the reporting, notification and protection mechanisms of the treaty; there is no distinction between the types of state activities undertaken in these different maritime zones.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Activities directed at UCH
  • Activities Affecting UCH
  • 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea
  • UNESCO's 2001 Convention
  • Maritime Zones

A) Books

1. Blake, Janet E. (2015). International Cultural Heritage Law (Cultural Heritage Law and Policy), Oxford University Press.

2. Forrest, Craig J. S. (2010). International Law and the Protection of Cultural Heritage, Oxon, Routledge.

3. Long, Roman J. (2007). Marine Resources Law, Thomson Round Hall.

4. O'Keefe, Patrick J. (2002). Shipwrecked Heritage: A Commentary on the UNESCO Convention on Underwater Cultural Heritage, Institute of Art and Law.

5. Strati, Anastasia (1995). The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: An Emerging Objective of the Contemporary Law of the Sea, The Hague, Kulwer Law International.

 

B) Articles

6. Bederman, David J. (2002). "Maritime Preservation Law: Old Challenges, New Trends" Widener Law Symposium Journal, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 163–206.

7. Blake, Janet E. (1996). "The Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage", International & Comparative Law Quarterly, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 819-843.

8. Forrest, Craig J. S. (2002). "A New International Regime for the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage", International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 511-554.

9. Garabello, Roberta (2003). "The Negotiating History of the Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage", in R. Garabello and T. Scovazzi (eds.), The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: Before and After the 2001 UNESCO Convention, Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 89–192.

10. Gibbins, David (1991). "Archaeology in Deep Water-a Preliminary View", The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 163-168.

11. Kvalø, Froder and Marstrander, Layder (2006). "Norway", in Sarah. Dromgoole (ed.), The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: National Perspectives in Light of the UNESCO Convention 2001, Leiden and Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 217-228.

12. Le Gurun, Gwenaelle (2006). "France", in Sarah. Dromgoole (ed.), Legal Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage: National and International Perspectives, Kluwer Law International, pp. 59-95.

 

B) Documents

13. Comments of Canada working paper distributed at the Second Meeting of Governmental Experts, UNESCO Headquarters, Paris, 19−24 April 1999.

14. Final Report of the Second Meeting of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Body established under the Convention, Doc. UCH/11/2.STAB/220/7, 8 May 2011.

15. Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Cobalt-Rich Ferromanganese Crusts in the Area, adopted in 2012.

16. Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Polymetallic Nodules in the Area, adopted in 2000.

17. Regulations on Prospecting and Exploration for Polymetallic Sulphides in the Area, adopted in 2010.

18. Report of the Secretary-General of the International Seabed Authority under Art. 166, paragraph 4, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, ISBA/8/A/5, June 2002.

 

C) Newspaper Article

19. "Sinking Oil Threatens Historic Gulf Shipwrecks", Associated Press, 4 July 2010.

 

D) Internet

20. https://www.nord-stream.com/press-info/press-releases (Last visited: 16 Aug. 2016)