نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانش‌آموختۀ کارشناسی ارشد روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

با شروع بحران در سوریه و متعاقباً درگیری‌های مسلحانۀ داخلی تعداد زیادی از شهروندان سوریه برای حفظ جان خود ناگزیر به ترک خاک کشورشان شدند. برخی از آنها به سمت کشورهای مجاور سوریه و برخی دیگر به سمت کشورهای اروپایی حرکت کردند. در این مقاله ابتدا بررسی خواهیم کرد که مهاجران سوری را ذیل کدام‌یک از مفاهیم حقوق بین‌الملل می‌توان طبقه‌بندی کرد. سپس مقررات حقوق بین‌الملل در ارتباط با آنان شناسایی می‌شود و در نهایت خواهیم دید که عملکرد دولت‌های میزبان تا چه حد با مقررات حقوق بین‌الملل در این زمینه مطابقت داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Status of Syrian Migrants under International Law and the Assessment of the Measures Taken by the Host States in Their Regard

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Ali Sadat Akhavi 1
  • Sara Hassani 2

1 Assistant Prof., Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 MA in International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Following the outbreak of crisis in Syria and the subsequent internal armed conflicts, a large number of Syrians had to leave their home country in order to save their lives. Some fled to the neighbouring countries and some went to the European ones. In the present article, we will first discuss certain international law concepts to see which is more suitable to classify Syrian migrants thereunder. Then we will proceed to identify the rules of international law applicable to them. Finally, a legal assessment will be made of the measures undertaken by the host countries in response to the flow of Syrian migrants into their soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Syrian Migrants
  • Forced Migration
  • International Law and Forced Migration
  • Host Countries and Syrian Migrants

A) Book

1. Loescher, Gill, Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Elena, Long, Katy, and Sigona, Nando, (eds.), (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

B) Articles

2. Lischer, S. K. (2014). “Conflict And Crisis Induced Displacement”, in The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Gill Loescher, Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Katy Long and Nando Sigona eds., Oxford: Oxford University Press.

3. McDowell, Christopher. (2014). “Development Created Population Displacement", in The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Gill Loescher, Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Katy Long and Nando Sigona eds., Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4. Zetter, Roger & Morrissey, James. (2014). “The Environment-Mobility Nexus:Reconceptualizing the Links between Environment Stress, (Im) mobility,and Power”, in The Oxford Handbook of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Gill Loescher, Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh, Katy Long and Nando Sigona eds., Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

C) Reports of International Organisations

5. Amnesty International, (2015). Fenced out: Hungary's Violations of the Right of Refugees and Migrants.

6. British Red Cross, Europe Refugee Crisis appeal: facts and figures, 27 Jan 2016, available at “www.redcross.org.uk

7. European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations, 2500 Refugee and Migrant Children Now Attending Greek Schools, 2017, available at  http://ec.europa.eu/echo/news/2500-refugee-and-migrant-children-now-attending-greek-school

8. Hungarian Helsinki Committee (HHC), (2017). Hungary: Turbulent 50 days – an update on the Hungarian asylum situation.

9. Human Rights Watch, Hungary Failing To Protect Vulnerable Refugees, 22 February ,2016, available at " https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/09/20/hungary-failing-protect-vulnerable-refugees

10. Human Rights Watch, Turkey: Border Guards Kill and Injure Asylum Seekers, 10 May 2016, available at “www.hrw.org/news/2016/05/10/turkey-border-guards”

11. Human Rights Watch , Syrian Refugee Kids Still Out of School in Turkey, 2017, available at ” https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/01/23/syrian-refugee-kids-still-out-school-turkey

12. Human Rights watch, Lebanon: Rising Violence Targets Syrian Refugees, 30 September 2014, available at “www.hrw.org/news/2014/09/30/lebanon-rising-violence-targets-syrian-refugees”.

13. IOM, 2017, Key Migration Terms, available at www.iom.int/key-migration-terms.

14. Medecins Sans Frontieres / Doctors Without Borders, Greece: New Report Finds Dire Neglect of Asylum Seekers on Lesbos, 24July 2017, available at” www.doctors without borders.org”

15. OCHA, (2014), Informing Targeted Host Community Programming in Lebanon- Preliminary Analysis for Sector Planning.

16. UNHCR, Update on Lesvos and the Greek islands, 6 November 2015, available at www.unhcr.org./news/briefing/2015

17. UNHCR, Over one million sea arrivals reach Europe in 2015, 30 December2015, available at ” http://www.unhcr.org/afr/news/latest/2015/12/5683d0b56/million-sea-arrivals-reach-europe-2015.html"

18. UNHCR, (2013). Syrian Regional Response Plan January to June 2013.

19. UNHCR, (2017). Recommendations for Greece in 2017.

20. UNICEF, Over 40 per cent of Syrian refugee children in Turkey missing out on education, despite massive increase in enrolment rates – UNICEF, 9 January 2017, available at “https://www.unicef.org/media/media_94417.html”.

21. UNICEF, (3 May 2017). A child is a child: Protecting children on the move from violence, abuse and exploitation.

22. WFP, Lebanon/World Food Programme, 2016, available at “www.WFP. Org/countries/ Lebanon

 

D) International Human Rights Instruments

23. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

24. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(1992)

25. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)

26. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights(1966)

27. European Convention on Human Rights(1950)

28. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees(1951)

29. United Nations Convention against Torture(1984)

30. Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement(1998)

 

E) Websites

31. ABC News, Europe migrant crisis: Two dead, two injured after fire breaks out at Greek asylum seeker camp, 25 November 2015, Available at https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-11-26/two-dead-after-fire-breaks-out-at-greek-migrant-camp/8059852

32. Aljazeera ,Concerns as Greece clears out Eliniko refugees camp, 2 June 2017 available at,”http://www.aljazeera.com/amp/news/concerns-greece-clears-elliniko-"

33. Asylum Information Database, 2017, Health Care in Germany, available at, “Http://www.asylumineurope .org/reports/country/Germany/ reception-conditions/health-care”

34. Central European University, CEU Launches Open Learning Initiative with Weekend Courses for Registered Refugees, 2016, available at https://www.ceu.edu/article/2016-01-21/ceu-launches-open-learning-initiative-weekend-courses-registered-refugees

35. Hungarian Spectrum, Life the Hungarian transit Zones, 2017, available at” http://hungarianspectrum.org/tag/transit-zones/”

36. The Independent, Hand Grenade Thrown at Refugee Shelter in Germany in latest Attack on Asylum Seekers in Wake of Cologne Assaults, 29 January 2016, available at, www.independent.co.uk

37. Orient Net, Turkey Improving Medical services for Refugees, 2016, available at ” http://orient-news.net/en/news_show/101804/0/Turkey-improving-medical-services-for-refugees

38. The Daily Telegraph, More than 25000 Refugees and Migrants Have Died Trying to cross the Mediterranean to Europe so far this year, UN reveals, 31May 2016, available at ” www.telegraph.co.uk

39. The Daily Telegraph, Greek coast guard 'deliberately' sunk migrant boat in Turkish waters, fisherman's film alleges, 14 August 2015, available at” http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/greece/11803114/Greek-coast-guard-deliberately-sunk-migrant-boat-in-Turkish-waters-fishermans-film-alleges.html"