نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه تجارت بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد حقوق تجارت بین‌الملل دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی شریان حیاتی پیشرفت اقتصادی کشورها محسوب می‌شود که امروزه نمی‌توان هیچ کشوری را بی‌نیاز از آن دانست. مسیر اصلی ورود این جریان سرمایه را معاهدات دو یا چندجانبۀ سرمایه‌گذاری تشکیل می‌دهند. هرچند تا مدتی پیش هدف از جذب سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی و ورود منابع مالی به کشور سرمایه‌پذیر، رشد اقتصادی در نظر گرفته می‌شد، با گذر زمان مشخص شد که تأکید بیش‌ازحد بر رشد اقتصادی و بی‌توجهی به توسعۀ پایدار به مشکلات متعددی منجر می‌شود. با توجه به فضای جدید حاکم بر جریان سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی و تجارت بین‌الملل، نیاز به تمهیدات جدید و متناسب با این تغییرات مبرم است. این تمهیدات که از آنها با عنوان ترتیبات نوین یاد می‌کنیم، مانند سرمایه‌گذاری برای توسعه، همبستگی سیاستگذاری، پویا بودن، و ارتقای سرمایه‌گذاری و حمایت از سرمایه‌گذار، در پی ایجاد توسعۀ پایدار هم در زمینۀ اقتصادی و هم در زمینۀ محیط زیست و هم در سایر زمینه‌ها هستند. البته اجرایی شدن آنها نیازمند وجود نظام حقوقی منسجم با ضمانت اجراهای مشخص برای نیل به اهداف موردنظر است. این مقاله درصدد است تا با رویکردی توصیفی و تحلیلی و با روش جامعه‌شناسی حقوقی، ابتدا مفهوم ترتیبات نوین سرمایه‌گذاری را که کمتر بدان پرداخته شده است، بررسی کند. در ادامه دریابد که این مفهوم چه ارتباطی با توسعۀ پایدار دارد. همچنین به کاوش در نظم حقوقی موجود در این زمینه چه در سطح ملی و چه در سطح بین‌المللی می‌پردازد و آثار ترتیبات نوین سرمایه‌گذاری بر توسعۀ پایدار را مطالعه می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal Approach to New Arrangements in Foreign Investments and its Impact on Sustainable Development

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Reza Nikbakht 1
  • Meysam Beykmohammadi 2
  • Farhad Bagheri 3

1 Professor of Law at Shahid Beheshti University

2 Master of Laws, International Trade law

3 PhD Candidate in International Law

چکیده [English]

Foreign Direct Investment is considered as a vital matter for every countries’ economic progress and no country is needless to Foreign Investment. The main paths for importing such investments are bilateral or multilateral investment treaties. Although for a while, the objective to attract foreign investment and import financial resources to a host country was economic growth but as time advanced, it came out that insisting on economic growth and disregarding sustainable development would create several problems. Notwithstanding the new atmosphere of foreign investment trend and international trade, the query to new arrangements and proper to these evolutions seem quite necessary. Such arrangements which the authors call new arrangements, including investment for development, alliance of policy- making, dynamism and promotion and protection of investor, are intended to create and ensure sustainable development, both in economic and environmental areas and also other areas as well. Their implementation though, requires a concrete legal system with specific enforcements in order to fulfil the defined objectives. This contribution, with a descriptive and analytic approach with a socio-legal method, first, study the concept of new arrangements in investment which has not been dealt with dully. Then, it tries to answer to this question that what is the concept’s relation to sustainable development. Plus, studies the present legal order both at national and international level and examines the impact of new arrangements on foreign investment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Commitment to Development
  • Foreign direct investment
  • Sustainable Development
  • New Arrangements

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

1. تودارو، مایکل. 89. توسعۀ اقتصادى در جهان سوم. ج 1، ترجمۀ غلامعلى فرجادى، تهران: سازمان برنامه و بودجه.

2. برنامۀ محیط زیست سازمان ملل متحد (1388). حقوق تجارت بین‌الملل و محیط زیست، ترجمۀ محمد حبیبی و سیامک سلیم‌زاده، تهران: آثار اندیشه.

 

ب) مقالات

3. فراهانی فرد، سعید (1384). «درآمدی بر توسعۀ پایدار در عصر ظهور»، پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشۀ اسلامی، فصلنامۀ علمی پژوهشی اقتصاد اسلامی.

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

4. Abeasi, Kwasi (2012). “Host Country Policies on FDI with Particular Reference to Developing Countries – A Brief Commentary”, In The Development Dimension of FDI: Policy- and Rule-Making Perspectives. Proceedings of the Expert Meeting held in Geneva.

5. Banerjee, Subhabrata Bobby (2003). Who Sustains Whose Development? Sustainable Development and the Reinvention of Nature, Sage Publication. Organization Studies.

6. Cosbey, Aaron (2004). Lessons Learned on Trade and Sustainable Development: Distilling six years of research from the Trade Knowledge Network, International Institute for Sustainable Development: chapter 3.

7. Neumayer, Eric (2001). Greening trade and investment: environmental protection without protectionism, earth scan publisher.

8. Nordstrom, Hakan and Scott Vaughan. (1999). Trade and Environment, Special Studies WTO Publication, Geneva.

9. Puchala and others (1989). the challenge of relevance: the United Nations in a changing world environment, academic council on the United Nations system.

 

B) Articles

10. Burger, Laurence (2013). “The Trouble with Salini (Criticism of and Alternatives to the Famous Test).” ASA Bulletin.

11. Denisia, Vintila (2010). “Foreign Direct Investment Theories: an Overview of the Main FDI Theories.” European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2, Issue 2: 104.

12. Grabowski, Alex (2014). “The Definition of Investment under the ICSID Convention: a Defense of Salini.” Chicago Journal of International Law.

13. Irandoust, Manuchehr (2010). “A Survey of Recent Developments in the Literature of FDI-Led Growth Hypothesis.” The Journal of World Investment & Trade.

14. Kumar, Nagesh (2012). “Use and Effectiveness of Performance Requirements: What Can Be Learnt from the Experiences of Developed and Developing Countries?” In The Development Dimension of FDI: Policy- and Rule-Making Perspectives. Proceedings of the Expert Meeting held in Geneva.

15. Lowe, Vaughan (2007). “Changing Dimension of International Investment Law”, University of Oxford Faculty of Law Legal Studies Research Paper Series. Working Paper No 4/2007.

16. Mann, Howard (2012). “The Right of States to Regulate and International Investment Law: a Comment.” In The Development Dimension of FDI: Policy- and Rule-Making Perspectives. Proceedings of the Expert Meeting held in Geneva.

17. Munoz, Heraldo (1994). “The Green vs. Trade Debate in the Americas”, Journal of Environment and Development.

18. Nagaraja, B. (2013). “Can Sustainable Development Be Achieved By The Employment of Foreign Direct Investment? Yes”, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention.

19. Trachtman, Joel P (2012). “FDI and the Right to Regulate: Lessons from Trade Law”, In The Development Dimension of FDI: Policy- and Rule-Making Perspectives, Proceedings of the Expert Meeting held in Geneva.

 

C) Documents & Cases

20. OECD (1994). “Methodologies for Environment and Trade Reviews, General Distribution.” OECD Publication, Paris.

21. OECD (2015). “OECD and Post-2015 Reflection: Investment for Sustainable Development.” OECD Publication, Paris.

22. The 4th UN Conference on LDCs (the Istanbul Programme)

23. UN Guidelines on Business and Human Rights

24. UN Johannesburg Plan of Implementation

25. UN Millennium Development Goals (UNMDG)

26. UNCTAD. 2003. “Foreign Direct Investment and Performance Requirements: New Evidence from Selected Countries.” UN Pub., New York and Geneva.

27. UNCTAD. 2012a. “Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development.” Division on Investment. UN Publications, Geneva.

28. UNCTAD. 2015b.” Investing in Sustainable Development Goals_ Action Plan for Private Investment in SDGs.” Special Edition for the Third International Conference on Financing for Development. Un Pub. Geneva.

29. United Nations. (1945). “United Nations Charter.”

30. United Nations. (1961). “Resolution on the Development Decade.” GA Resolution 1710 (XVI): Operative.

31. United Nations. (2003). “Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development.” UNDESA, Mexico:

32. United Nations. (2015). “The Millennium Development Goals Report.” UN Publications, New York.

 

D) Websites

33. Transfer of Price: The price at which divisions of a company transact with each other. Transactions may include the trade of supplies or labor between departments. Read more: Transfer Price Definition | Investopedia http://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/transferprice.asp#ixzz3rNcTTenZ