نویسنده

استادیار گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تمدن بشری معاصر، هرچند دستاوردهایی را در صیانت از کرامت انسانی کسب کرده است، اشتهای جنبش‌های اجتماعی فعلی، محدود به حیات انسانی نیست و خیزش‌های بسیاری در مراعات حال حیوانات اهلی و حتی غیراهلی شکل گرفته که در نتیجه، قواعد بین‌المللی در حال تکوین در این راه هستند. برای مثال عملکرد کمیسیون بین‌المللی نهنگ و رویکرد هیأت حل اختلاف سازمان جهانی تجارت در مورد محصولات پوست فوک، نمایشی از این واقعیت است که دغدغه‌های بشر در خصوص بهداشت و سلامت عمومی، حقوقی که حیوانات بر عهدۀ انسان‌ها دارند و ملاحظات محیط زیستی، مفهوم نوینی را با عنوان «رفاه حیوانات» پیش کشیده است که به پشتوانۀ مطالعات علمی، منشأ تحولات چشمگیری در رویکرد حقوقی ملی و بین‌المللی نسبت به رفتار انسان با حیوانات خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Emergence of Transnational Approaches to Animal Welfare Law

نویسنده [English]

  • Amir Saed Vakil

Assistant Professor, University of Tehran

چکیده [English]

Although contemporary human civilization has gained many achievements in human dignity, current social movements are not limited to human life and there are some initiatives towards respecting situations of domesticated as well as non-domesticated animals. Consequently, relevant international rules are evolving. The International Whaling Commission and the Dispute Settlement Panel of the World Trade Organization on Seal Products Case show this fact that human concerns on health and public sanitary, human obligations against animals, and environmental considerations create a new concept under the title of "Animal Welfare", which relies on scientific studies, emanates significant changes in national and international legal approaches on human treatment with animals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Animal Trade in WTO
  • Protection of Animals
  • Animal Welfare
  • International Whaling Commission

1. فارسی

1. شهبازی، آرامش (1391). «حقوق حیوانات: تأملی در نظریه و رویه»، فصلنامۀ پژوهش حقوق عمومی، ش 36.

2. کاظمی، عبدالحسن؛ رزم‌آرایی، ناصر (1390). «حقوق حیوانات و تحقیقات زیست پزشکی»، فصلنامۀ اخلاق پزشکی، ش 15.

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

3. Aland, A; Madec, F. (eds.)  (2009). Sustainable Animal Production, Wageningen Academic Publishers.

4. Broom, D.M.; Fraser, A.F. (2015). Domestic Animal Behavior and Welfare, CABI.

5. ------------------- (2009). Animal Welfare and Legislation, In Welfare of Production Animals: Assessment and Management of Risks, ed. F.Smulders and B.O. Algers, Wgeningen Pers.

6. ------------------- (2012). Defining Agricultural Animal Welfare: From a Sustainability and Product Quality Viewpoint, In: Animal Welfare in Animal Agriculture, ed. W.E., F.W. Bazer and B.E. Rollin, CRC Press.

7. ------------------ (1986). Indicators of Poor Welfare, British Veterinary Journal.

8. ------------------ (2014). Sentience and Animal Welfare, CABI, p. 142.

9. ------------------ (2003). the Evolution of Morality and Religion, Cambridge University Press.

10. ------------------ (2007). Traceability of Food and Animals in Relation to Animal Welfare, In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Traceability of Agricultural Products, Embrapa.

11. ------------------ (1999). Welfare and How It Is Affected by Regulation, In regulation of Animal Production in Europe, ed. M. Kinisch and H. Ekkel, KTBL.

12. Debora Cao and Steven White (2016), Animal Law and Welfare International Perspective, Springer.

13. DeGrazia, D. (1996). Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life and Moral Status, Cambridge University Press.

14. Eric A. Shelman (1999). Out of the Darkness: The History of Mary Ellen Wilson, Dolphin Moon Publishing.

15. Kelch, Thomas G. (2011). Globalization and Animal Law: Comparative Law, International Law, and International Trade, Wolter Kluwer.

16. Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective Neuroscience, the Foundation of Human and Animal Emotion, OUP.

17. Rault, J.L. (2012). Friends with Benefits: Social Support and Its Relevance for Farm Animal Welfare, Applied Animal Behavior Science.

18. Wagman, Bruce A. and Liebman, Matthew (2011). A Worldview of Animal Law, Carolina Academic Press.

 

B) Articles

19. Bennett, R.M., Anderson, J., and Blaney, R.J.P. (2002). “Moral Intensity and Willingness to Pay Concerning Farm Animal Welfare Issues and the Implications for Agricultural Policy’, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 15.

20. Bernard, A., Breockaert, F., De Poorter, G., De Cock. A., Hermans, C., Saegerman, C., and Houins, G. (2002). “the Belgian PCB/Dioxin Incident: Analysis of the Food Chain Contamination and Health Risk Evaluation”, Environmental Research, 88.

21. Berthe, F., Vannier, P., Have, P., Serratosa, J., Bastino, E., Broom, D.M., Hartung, J., and Sharp, J.M. (2012). “the Role of EFSA in Assessing and Promoting Animal Health and Welfare”, EFSA Journal, 10.

22. Broom, D.M. (2010). “Animal Welfare: An Aspect of Care, Sustainability, and Food Quality Required by the Public”, Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 37.

23. ESFA (2005), “Aspects of the Biology and Welfare of Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes”, ESFA Journal.

24. Mark Oliver (2006), “Banksy’s Painted Elephant is Illegal”, Say Officials, The Guardian, Sept. 18.

25. Nancy Kubasek et al. (1994). “Protecting Marine Mammals: Time for a New Approach”, UCLA J. ENVTL. L. & POL’Y 1, 13.

 

C) Documents

26. 1991 Directive No. 91/629/EEC

27. The Council directive 85/444/EEC of 27 September 1985 amending council directive 83/129/EEC concerning the importation into member states of skins of certain seal pups and products derived therefrom. Official Journal L 259, 01.01.1985.

28. 1997 Directive No. 97/2/EC

29. Council Regulation (EC) 1/2005 on the Protection of Animals During Transport and Related Operations

 

D) Cases

30. I.C.J. Reports 2014, p. 226; Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia v. Japan: New Zealand intervening),. Judgment

31. State v. Nix., 334 P.3d 437, 448 (Oregan 2014)

32. WTO, Dispute Settleent: Dispute DS400. European Counities-measures Prohibiting the Importation and Marketing of Seal Products. Geneva.:WTOURL:http://www.wto.org/English/tratop_e/disp. (7 July 2011).

 

E) Websites

33. http://www.nonhumanrightsproject.org/category/courtfilings/. (Visited on February 11, 2018)

34. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/07/science/cat-sense-explains-what-theyre-really-thinking.html (visited on May 21, 2017)