نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مذاکرات در عرصۀ روابط بین‌الملل، به‌ویژه با هدف حل‌وفصل مسالمت‌آمیز اختلافات بین‌المللی، می‌بایست با حسن نیت دنبال شود، چراکه انجام مذاکرات با حسن نیت به‌عنوان یک قاعدۀ بین‌المللی و در برخی موارد، پیش‌شرط لازم برای انعقاد معاهده یا انجام توافق است. هر زمان که توافق صریحی، برای انجام مذاکره وجود داشته باشد، چه عبارت «حسن نیت» در آن آمده باشد یا خیر، طرفین باید طبق اصل وفای به عهد، و مادۀ 26 عهدنامۀ وین حقوق معاهدات، با حسن نیت روند مذاکرات را دنبال کنند. بنابراین، اصل حسن نیت، حتی در مذاکرات داوطلبانه هم اعمال خواهد شد و حتی در صورت نبود توافق صریح بین طرفین، یا تعهد ذاتی در برخی از شاخه‌های حقوق بین‌الملل، باز هم رعایت این اصل حقوقی الزامی خواهد بود. می‌توان گفت در انواع تعهد به مذاکره، یعنی توافق برای مذاکره (تعهد به ‌وسیله)، و توافق برای انعقاد یک معاهده (تعهد به نتیجه)، طرفین صرف‌نظر از مبنای حقوقی تعهداتشان، باید خالصانه و هدفمند به انجام مذاکرات بپردازند و با حسن نیت برای رسیدن به نتایج مطلوب تلاش و مصالحه کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Obligation to Negotiation in Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aramesh Shahbazi 1
  • Mozhgan khosronezhad 2

1 Associate Prof., Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Alla meh Tabatabaie,

2 MSc. Student, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Allameh Tabatabaie, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Negotiations in the area of international relations, particularly with the aim of peaceful settlement of international disputes, should be done with good faith. This is because having negotiations with good faith is like an international rule and in some cases; it is the pre-requisite for a treaty or agreement. Whenever there is an explicit agreement for negotiating, whether the term "good faith" is used in it or not, the parties shall continue negotiations based on principle of pact sunt servanda, and Article 26 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties with good faith. However, the principle of good faith will be applied even in voluntary negotiations. In other words, even in the absence of an explicit agreement between the parties, or an inherent obligation in some branches of international law, comply with it will be essential. Thus, in both cases of the obligation to negotiate, the Pactum de Negotiando (obligation of conduct), and Pactum de contrahendo (obligation of the result), the parties, regardless of their legal obligations base, should be sincere and purposefully negotiate with good faith and compromise to achieve the desired results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Obligation to Negotiation
  • Pactum de Negotiando
  • Pacta de Contrahendo
  • Obligation to Negotiation in Good Faith

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

1. ضیایی بیگدلی، محمدرضا (1384). حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، چ بیست‌وسوم، تهران: گنج دانش.

 

ب) مقالات

2. کاتوزیان ناصر؛ عباس‌زاده، محمدهادی (1392). «حسن نیت در حقوق ایران»، فصلنامۀ حقوق، مجلۀ دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دورۀ 43، ش 3.

3. الهویی نظری، حمید؛ محمدی، عقیل (1394). «تحلیل ابعاد اصل حسن نیت در حقوق بین‌الملل در پرتو رویۀ قضایی»، مجلۀ حقوق بین‌المللی، ش 53.

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

4. Aust, A. (2007). Modern Treaty law and Practice. 2. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

5. Brownlie, (2008). I. Principles of public international law. 6th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

6. Cannizzaro, E. (Ed). (2011). The Law of Treaties beyond the Vienna Convention. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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8. Crawford, J. (2013). State Responsibility. The General Part. New York: Cambridge University Press.

9. Fitzmaurice, G. (1959/35). The Law and Procedure of the International Court of Justice, 1954-General Principles and Sources of International Law. – British Yearbook of International Law.

10. Fitzmaurice, G. (1950/27). The Law and Procedure of the International Court of Justice: General Principles and Substantive Law. – British Yearbook of International Law.

11. Jennings, R., and Watts, A. (1996). Oppenheim’s International Law. 9th ed. Vol 1. Peace. Introduction and Part I. London and New York: Longman.

12. Kelsen, H. (2008).The Law of the United Nations: a Critical Analysis of Its Fundamental Problems: with Supplement. Union (NJ): Lawbook Exchange.

13. Keyes, M., and Wilson, (2014). T. Codifying Contract Law. International and Consumer Law Perspectives. Routledge: Ashgate.

14. Klabbers, J., and Lefeber, R. (1998). Essays on the Law of Treaties: A Collection of Essays in Honour of Bert Vierdag. The Hague, Boston, London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

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17. Lowe, V., and Warbrick, C. (Eds). (1994) .The United Nations and the Principles of International Law — Essays in Memory of M. Akehurst. London/NY: Routledge 1994.

18. Shaw, M. N. (2012). International Law. 6th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

19. Swan, A, and Adamski, (2013). J. Halsbury's Laws of Canada – Contracts. Reissue. LexisNexis.

20. Thirlway, H. (2013). The Law and Procedure of the International Court of Justice. Fifty Years of Jurisprudence. Vol I and Vol II. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

21. Villiger, M. E. (2009). Commentary on the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

22. Villiger, M. E. (1985). Customary International Law and Treaties: a Study of Their Interactions and Interrelations, with Special Consideration of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

23. Wellens. K. (2014). Negotiations in the Case Law of the International Court of Justice. A Functional Analysis. Farnham: Ashgate.

24. Zimmermann, A. (et al.) (Eds). (2006).The Statute of the International Court of Justice: A Commentary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

25. Zimmermann, R., and Whittaker, S. (2000). Good Faith in European Contract Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

26. Zweigert, K., and Kötz, H. (1998). An Introduction to Comparative Law. 3rd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

 

B) Article

27. Rogoff, M. A. (1994/16).”The Obligation to Negotiate in International Law: Rules and Realities”, Michigan Journal of International Law.

 

C) International Treatie

28. Charter of the United Nations and the Statute of the International Court of Justice. – RT II 1996, 24, 95.

29. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Opened for signature 24 September 1996 (not yet in force).

30. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction. – RT II 1993, 15, 19.

31. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction. – RT II 1999, 11, 72.

32. Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. – RT II 1999, 10, 64.

33. United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. – RT II 1993, 21, 52.

34. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. – RT II 2005, 16, 48.

35. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. – RT II 2007, 15.