نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دوره دکتری حقوق عمومی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد تمام دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

خصوصی‌سازی صنایع مادر از جمله صنعت آب، از مسائل کانونی مناقشات سرمایه‌گذاری در دهۀ گذشته بوده است. تاکنون پنج پروندۀ مهم در زمینۀ خصوصی‌سازی آب در دیوان داوری ایکسید مطرح ‌شده که در تمامی آنها حق بر دسترسی به آب به‌عنوان حقی بشری توسط دول میزبان یا سازمان‌های مردم‌نهاد مورد استناد قرار گرفته است. در حال حاضر هیچ سند لازم‌الاجرای حقوق بشری صریحاً حق دسترسی به آب را، به‌عنوان حق مستقل بشری، به رسمیت نشناخته است. کمیتۀ حقوق اجتماعی، اقتصادی و فرهنگی حق دسترسی به آب را قابل استنباط از سایر حق‌های بشری از جمله حق بر سلامتی، حق بر غذا و حق بر مسکن دانسته است. در این مقاله شکل‌گیری و تحول حق دسترسی به آب از حقوق بشر که خاستگاه این حق است تا رویۀ دیوان داوری ایکسید، پیگیری شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

“An Investigation of the Human Right to Water in ICSID Caselaw”

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nima Nasrollahi Shahri 1
  • Seyed Ghasem Zamani 2

1 Ph.D. in Public Law, Faculty of law, Allameh Tabataeه University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Prof., International law department, law, Allameh Tabataei University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Privatization of mother industries has been a focal issue in investment disputes in the last few decades. Thus far, there have been five major investment arbitrations regarding privatization of water industry in all of which the human right to water has been invoked by the host states or NGOs. At present, there are no binding human rights instruments that recognize the right to access water as an independent human right. The Committee of Social and Economic Rights goes so far as to infer the existence of this right from other human rights such as the right to food, the right to health and the right to housing. This article traces the human right to water from its birthplace, human rights law, to ICSID arbitration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • The right to access water
  • ICSID case law
  • Investment law
  • Human rights law

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

1. حسیبی، به‌آزین (1391)، دولت و سرمایه‌گذاران خارجی استانداردهای بین‌المللی، تهران: شهر دانش.

2. عسگری، پوریا (1391)، حقوق سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی در رویۀ داوری بین‌المللی، تهران: شهر دانش.

3. دالزز، رودالف؛ شروئر، کریستفر (1393)، اصول حقوق بین‌الملل سرمایه‌گذاری، ترجمۀ سید قاسم زمانی و به‌آزین حسیبی، تهران: شهر دانش.

 

ب) مقالات

4. آرون بروشه (1388)، «قانون حاکم و اجرای احکام در داوری‌های موضوع کنوانسیون حل‌وفصل اختلافات ناشی از سرمایه‌گذاری بین دولت‌ها و اتباع دول دیگر»، ترجمۀ محسن محبی، مجلۀ حقوقی، ش 10.

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

5. Vandana Shiva (2002), water wars: privatization, pollution and profit, South End Press.

 

B) Articles

6. Ache, A., Perelman, S. And Trujillo, L., (2005), ‘Infrastructure performance and reform in developing and transition economies: evidence from a survey of productivity measures’, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3514.

7. Allen, E.H. (2010), “‘This Business Will Never Hold Water’ International Investment Arbitration on Public Private Water Service Provision - A Comment on Biwater Gauff (Tanzania) Limited v. United Republic of Tanzania” AVAILABLE AT:

8. Balcerzak, F. (2014), “Jurisdiction of Tribunals in Investor–State Arbitration and the Issue of Human Rights” (2014) 29(1) ICSID Review 216.

9. Guasch J. L. and Straub S., (2009), ‘Corruption and concession renegotiations: evidence from the water and transport sectors in Latin America’ Utilities Policy, 17, PP. 185–190.

10. Heather L. Bray (2013), “ICSID and the Right to Water: An Ingredient in the Stone Soup”: 2013 ICSID Review Student Writing Competition

11. Hirsch, M. (2013), “The Sociology of International Investment Law” in Z. Douglas, J. Pauwelyn, and J.E. Viñuales, eds. The Foundations of International Investment Law: Bringing Theory into Practic (Oxford University Press, 2014).

12. McCaffrey S. C. (2005), “The Human Right to Water” in Edith Brown Weiss et al, eds., Freshwater and International Economic Law

13. Meshel, T. (2015) “Human Rights in Investor-State Arbitration: The Human Right to Water and Beyond”. J Int Disp Settlement 2015; 6 (2): PP. 277-307.

14. O’Neill, T. (2006), “Water and Freedom: The Privatization of Water and its Implications for Democracy and Human Rights in the Developing World.

15. Peterson, L.E. (2009), Selected Recent Developments in IIA Arbitration and Human Rights, IIA MONITOR No. 2 (2009) International Investment Agreements, UNCTAD, UNITED NATIONS New York and Geneva.

16. Thielbörger, P. (2009), “The Human Right to Water Versus Investor Rights: Double-Dilemma or Pseudo-Conflict?” in PM Dupuy, F Francioni & EU Petersmann, eds., Human Rights in International Investment Law and Arbitration (Oxford University Press, 2009).

17. Truswell, E., (2011), “Thirst for profit: Water privatization, investment law and a human right to water” in Chester Brown & Kate Miles, eds., Evolution in Investment Treaty Law and Arbitration (Cambridge University Press, 2011).

18. United Nations, (2012) “The Right to Water”, Fact Sheet No. 35 (2010) at 3; Sara De Vido, “The Right to Water: From an Inchoate Right to an Emerging International Norm” (2012) 45(2) Belgian Review of International Law, P. 517.

 

C) Awards

19. ECHR (2005), the Case of Taşkin and others v Turkey, Judgment.

20. ECHR (2011), Dubetska and Others v. Ukraine, Judgment.

21. ECHR (2014), The Case of Dzemyuk v. Ukraine, Judgment.

22. ICDID (1984), Amco Asia Corporation and others v. Republic of Indonesia, ICSID Case No. ARB/81/1.

23. ICDID (1986), Liberian Eastern Timber Corporation v. Republic of Liberia, ICSID Case No. ARB/83/2.

24. ICDID (1990), Southern Pacific Properties (Middle East) Limited v. Arab Republic of Egypt, ICSID Case No. ARB/84/3

25. ICDID (2006) Azurix Corp. v. Argentine Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/01/12, Award

26. ICDID (2008), Biwater Gauff (Tanzania) Ltd. v. United Republic of Tanzania, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/.

27. ICDID (2011), Duke Energy Electroquil Partners & Electroquil S.A. v. Republic of Ecuador, ICSID Case No. ARB/04/1

28. Methanex Corporation v. United States of America (2005), UNCITRAL, Award, 3 August 2005.

29. South African High Court (2006), Residents of Bon Vista Mansions v. Southern Metropolitan Local Council; Decision.

30. Supreme Court of India (1991), Subhash Kumar v. State of Bihar, A.I.R. 1991 S.C. 420 (India), Decision.

 

D) Documents

31. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 15, The Right to Water, E/C.12/2002/ 11 (20 January 2003) 29th Session (2003) (‘General Comment 15’)

32. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (adopted 18 December 1979, entered into force 3 September 1981)

33. Convention on the Rights of the Child (adopted 20 November 1989, entered into force 2 September 1990)

34. Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (adopted 12 August 1949, entered into force 21 October 1950)

35. UN Human Rights Council, “Human rights and access to safe drinking water and Sanitation” (Resolution 7/22), March 2008

36. United Nations Millennium Declaration, UNGA Res 55/2 (8 September 2000) UN Doc A/RES/55/2

37. United Nations News Centre, “In Detroit, city-backed water shut-offs ‘contrary to human rights,’ say UN experts”, 20 October 2014.

38. United Nations News Centre, “In Detroit, city-backed water shut-offs ‘contrary to human rights,’ say UN experts”, 20 October 2014.