نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین الملل، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)

2 دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، دانشیار،گروه حقوق، دانشکدۀ حقوق، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)

چکیده

شورای امنیت در زمینۀ مبارزه با تروریسم، به‌خصوص با صدور قطعنامۀ 1373، فصل نوینی را در شکل و قالب قطعنامه‌ها گشود. این قطعنامه‌ها که شکلی قانونگذارانه دارد، برای تمام دولت‌های جهان تعهداتی ایجابی و سلبی ایجاد می‌کند. این سبک از تصویب قطعنامه‌ها برای شورا که نهادی سیاسی بود، چالش مشروعیت و قانونمندی تصمیمات را پیش می‌کشد. از سوی دیگر، برخی این اقدام را در صورت فقدان بازوی اجرایی کارا و مؤثر در نظام حقوق بین‌الملل دفع افسد به فاسد دانسته و در این زمینه برای تصمیمات شورا قانونمندی و مشروعیت نیز متصور شده‌اند. همچنین این مسئله باید از این دیدگاه نیز بررسی شود که حقوق بین‌الملل خودبه‌خود می‌تواند به بازسازی قواعد موجود و پر کردن خلأها بپردازد و رویۀ شورای امنیت در واقع همان خودبازسازی سیستم حقوق بین‌الملل در این زمینه است. این مقاله، اقدام قانونگذاری شورای امنیت را جلوه‌ای از توانایی حقوق بین‌الملل برای خودبازسازی می‌داند، هرچند برای این تصمیمات فاقد قاطعیت و مشروعیت در همۀ جوانب است، اما دست‌کم در برخی موارد آن را تأیید می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Legislative jurisdiction of Security Council in its Fight against Terrorism from the perspective of legitimacy; with Emphasise on Self-rectifying mechanism of international law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mastoureh Ghorbanipour 1
  • Leila Raisi 2

1 Ph.D student in international law at Islamic Azad University, Isfahan branch

2 Associate Prof., Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch, Isfahan

چکیده [English]

The Security Council in its fight against terrorism has opened a new chapter in its resolutions, especially by 1373(2001) resolution. This kind of new resolutions have legislative structure and impose binding obligations on all states. This sort of resolutions make some problematic discussions about their legality and legitimacy. First, in the absence of any executive or legislative organs in international law, some scholars defend the decisions. In another side, this must be considered from the viewpoint of Self-rectifying process of international law. Now we are going to see that whether this kind of decisions could be justified in the light of Self-rectifying process of international law and so they obtain legitimacy or not. Legislative actions of Security Council, in our opinion, is considered as an aspect of Self-rectifying process of international law and through that process can suppose Security Council decisions, at least in some aspects, are legitimate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Legitimacy of Legislation
  • Security Council’s Resolutions
  • Legislative Jurisdiction
  • Self-rectifying Mechanism of International law
  • Fight against Terrorism

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها و پایان‌نامه‌ها

1. زمانی، سید قاسم (1388)، حقوق سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، چ پنجم، تهران: مؤسسۀ مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.

2. سادات میدانی، سید حسین (1381)، بررسی صلاحیت قانونگذاری شورای امنیت با تأکید بر تصمیمات شورا پس از جنگ سرد، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تهران.

3. ولی‌پور، ابراهیم (1388)، نقش شورای امنیت در توسعۀ ساز کارهای مبارزه با تروریسم بین‌المللی (با تأکید بر روند آن پس از یازده سپتامبر)، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران.

 

 

ب) مقالات

4. حسینی‌آزاد، سید علی؛ ابراهیمی، زهرا (1393)، «تردیدی پیش روی دولت‌ها: انقیاد به تعهدات حقوق بشری یا اجرای الزامات مقرره از جانب شورای امنیت»، مجلۀ تعالی حقوق، سال ششم، ش. 6، صص. 113-150.

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2. انگلیسی

A) Books

6. Alvarez, EJ, (2005), International Organizations as Law-Makers, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

7. Amerasinghe, C. F., (2005), Principles of the institutional law of international organizations. 2nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

8. Franck, Thomas M., (1995), Fairness in International Law and Institutions, New York: Oxford University Press.

9. Malone, David M., (2004), The UN Security Council: From the Cold War to the 21st Century, USA:Lynne Rienner Publishers.

10. Sarooshi, Dan (2000), The United Nations and the Development of Collective Security: The Delegation by the UN Security Council of its Chapter VII Powers, Oxford:Oxford University Press.

11. Scelle, Georges (1934), Précis de droit des gens. Principes et systématique, vol. II, Droit constitutionnel international, Paris, Recueil Sirey.

12. Van Loo, E.F.M., (1996), the united nations security council in the post-cold war era; In need of reform?, an M. A. thesis, 1996, available at http://arno.uvt.nl/show.cgi?fid=95415

13. Wilson, Gary, (2014), the United Nations and Collective Security, New York, Routledge.

 

B) Articles

14. Abi-Saab, Georges (2002), “The Proper Role of International Law in Combating Terrorism”, Chinese Journal of International Law, vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 305-313.

15. ---------------------- (2008), “The Security Council as Legislator and as Executive in its Fight Against Terrorism and Against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Question of Legitimacy”, in Rüdiger Wolfrum, Volker Roben (eds.), Legitimacy in International Law, Springer, pp. 109-130.

16. Basaran, Halil Rahman (2014), “Identifying the Responsibility to Protect”, Fletcher F. World Aff., Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 195-212.

17. Boulden, Jane (2006), “Double Standards, Distance and Disengagement: Collective Legitimization in the Post-Cold War Security Council”, Security Dialogue, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 409-423.

18. De frouville, Olivier (2014), “On the Theory of the International Constitution”, in Unité et diversité du droit international, Ecrits en l’honneur du professeur Pierre-Marie Dupuy, Brill/Nijhoff publisher, pp. 1-20.

19. De wet, Erika (2008), “The Legitimacy of United Nations Security Council Decisions in the Fight against Terrorism and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Some Critical Remarks”, in Rüdiger Wolfrum and Volker Roben (eds.), Legitimacy in International Law, Springer, pp. 131-154.

20. Delbruck, J., (2004), “Transnational Federalism: Problems and Prospects of Allocating Public Authority Beyond the State”, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Vol. 11, pp. 31-55.

21. Donnelly, Eric (2005), “Raising Global Counter-Terrorism Capacity: The Work of the Security Council’s Counter-Terrorism Committee”, in: Paul Eden & Therese O’Donnell (eds), September 11, 2001: A Turning Point in International and Domestic Law?, New York: Transnational Publishers.

22. Erlanger, Steven & Castle, Stephen (Dec. 3, 2015), “British Jets Hit ISIS in Syria After Parliament Authorizes Airstrikes”, N. Y. TIMES, A16.

23. Fassbender, Bardo (2002), “Uncertain Steps into a Post-Cold War World: The Role and Functioning of the UN Security Council after a Decade of Measures against Iraq”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 273-303.

24. Franck, Thomas M., (2006), “The Power of Legitimacy and the Legitimacy of Power: International Law in an Age of Power Disequilibrium”, Am. J. Int'l L., Vol. 100, pp. 88-106.

25. Gordon, Joy (2014), “The United Nations Security Council and the Emerging Crisis of Legitimacy”, Yale J. Int'l Aff., Vol. 9, pp. 40-47.

26. Hageboutros, Joelle (2016), “The Evolving Role of the Security Council in the Post-Cold War Period”, 2016, an Online article available at: https://works.swarthmore.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1005&context=swarthmoreirjournal

27. Happold, Matthew (2005), “Security Council Resolution 1373 and the Constitution of the United Nations”, Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, Issue 03, pp. 593-610.

28. Jodoin, Sebastien (2005), “Enhancing the Procedural Legitimacy of the U.N. Security Council: A Normative and Empirical Assessment”, Sri Lanka J. Int'l L., Vol. 17, pp. 1-53.

29. Joyner, Daniel H., (2012), “The Security Council as a Legal Hegemon”, Geo. J. Int'l L., Vol. 43, pp. 225-257.

30. Kirgis, Frederic L, (1995), “The Security Council’s First Fifty Years”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 89, pp. 506-539.

31. Koskenniemi, M., (1995), “The police in the Temple Order, Justice and the UN: a Dialectical View”, EJI.L., Vol. 6, pp. 325-348.

32. Kumm, Mattias, (2004), “The Legitimacy of International Law: A Constitutionalist Framework Analysis”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 907-931.

33. Lang, Arabella (2015), “Legal basis for UK military action in Syria”, House of Commons Library Briefing Paper, No. 7404.

34. Marschik, Alexander (2006), “The Security Council’s Role: Problems and Prospects in the Fight against Terrorism”, in: Guiseppe Nesi (ed), International Cooperation in Counter-Terrorism: The United Nations and Regional Organizations in the Fight Against Terrorism, New York, Routledge, pp. 69-80.

35. Martinez, Luis Miguel Hinojosa (2008), “The Legislative Role of the Security Council in its Fight against Terrorism: Legal, Political and Practical Limits”, Int'l & Comp. L.Q., Vol. 57, 333-359.

36. Olivier, Clementine (2004), “Human Rights Law and International Fight against Terrorism: How Do Security Council Resolutions Impact on States' Obligations under International Human Rights Law (Revisiting Security Council Resolution 1373)”, Nordic J. Int'l L., Vol. 73, pp. 399-419.

37. Reisman, W.M., (2005), “The Democratization of Contemporary Law-Making Processes and the Differentiation of their Application”, in: Rüdiger Wolfrum/Volker Röben (eds.), Developments of International Law in Treaty Making, Springer, pp. 15-.30.

38. Roele, Isobel (2014), “Disciplinary Power and the UN Security Council Counter Terrorism Committee”, J. Conflict & Sec. L., Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 49-84.

39. Rosand, Eric (2003), “Security Council Resolution 1373, the Counter-Terrorism Committee and the Fight against Terrorism”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 97, pp. 333-341.

40. ------------------ (2005), “The Security Council as Global Legislator: Ultra Vires or Ultra Innovative”, Fordham Int'l L.J., Vol. 28, pp. 542.590.

41. Saura, Jaume (2003), “Some Remarks on the Use of Force against Terrorism in Contemporary International Law and the Role of the Security Council”, Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev., Vol. 26, pp. 7-30.

42. Scharf, Michael P., (2016), “How the War Against ISIS Changed International Law”, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law , Vol. 48, pp. 1-54.

43. Singh, Narendra N., (1990), “The Legislative Process in International Law: A General Comment”, Bond Law Review, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 172-181.

44. Stein, Eric (2001), “International Integration and Democracy: No Love at First Sight”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 95, pp. 489-534.

45. Szasz, P. C., (2002), “Security Council Starts Legislating”', AJIL, Vol. 96, pp. 901-904.

46. Talmon, S., (2005), “The Security Council as a World Legislature”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 175.193.

47. Tsagourias, Nicholas, (2011), “Security Council Legislation, Article 2(7) of the UN Charter and the Principle of Subsidiarity”, Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol. 24, Issue 03, pp. 539-559.

48. Vegh, Karoly (2008), “A Legislative Power of the UN Security Council?”, Acta Juridica Hungarica, Vol. 49, No 3, pp. 275-295.

49. Wheatley, Steven (2006), “The Security Council, Democratic Legitimacy and Regime Change in Iraq”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 531-551.

 

C) Cases

50.Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory [2004]

51. ICJ, A.O. on Admission to Membership of UN, 1948.

52. Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, ICJ Advisory Opinion of 11 April 1949.

53. Case T-315/01 Kadi [2005] ECR II-0000

54. Case T-253/02 Ayadi [2006] ECR II-0000

55. Tadi6 (Jurisdiction) ICTY-94-1 (2 Oct 1995

56. ICTY, IT-94-AR72 (Appeals Chamber, Interlocutory Judgement on Jurisdiction of 2 October 1995)