نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه حقوق عمومی، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در عصر فراصنعتی، نهاد خانواده که اساس جوامع متمدن است، در سراشیبی نابودی قرار گرفته و حق بر زندگی خانوادگی به‌عنوان یکی از حق‌های بشر در معرض نقض جدی است.اهمیت موضوع خانواده موجب شد، نویسندگان در مقالۀ فرارو، جایگاه این حق در اسناد مختلف حقوق بشری را تبیین و مواجهۀ نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر با خانواده و تغییرات آن و اقدامات مرتبط را ارزیابی کنند.اگرچهتعدادی از این اسناد در زمرۀ مقررات قوام‌نایافتۀ بین‌المللی است، می‌تواند زمینه‌ساز تدوین سندی با ماهیت الزام‌آور با موضوع خانواده باشد. همچنین فراهم ‌آوردن خدمات اساسی در حوزۀ خانواده و ارتقای توجه به خانواده در سیاستگذاری‌ها در سطح بین‌المللی، مثبت ارزیابی می‌شود. اما با وجود این تلاش‌های مثبت، متأسفانه تفکر فردگرایی و تساوی‌طلبی و تقابل افراد در کانون خانواده، با نفوذ در تدوین اسناد بین‌المللی، ضمن موجه و قانونی ساختن اشکال نامتعارف خانواده، موجب شده است کانون خانواده تضعیف شود و روند فروپاشی آن ادامه داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Review of the status of the family in the international human rights

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Fazlollahh Mousavi 1
  • Fateme Ebrahimi 2

1 Prof., Faculty of Law and political science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 ph.D. student in International Law, Faculty of Law and political science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

In the post-industrial age, the institution of the family, which is the basis of the civilized societies, is on the verge of collapse and the right to family life is exposed as a serious violation of human rights. The importance of the subject matter of the family has prompted the authors to elucidate the position of this right in various human rights instruments and assess the international human rights situation with the family and its changes and related measures. Although some of these documents are international non-binding regulations, it can be used to formulate a mandatory family-based document that is something nice. Also, the provision of basic services in the family and the promotion of family attention in international policy is positively evaluated. But in spite of these positive efforts, unfortunately, the individualism and equalization of people in the center of the family, influencing the drafting of international documents while legitimizing the unusual patterns of the family, have weakened the family and somehow its collapse is continuing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Meaning of family
  • International Instruments
  • International Day of Families
  • General Assembly
  • General commentary
  • family-centred policies. Human Rights Council

1. فارسی

الف)کتاب‌ها

1. اسعدی، حسن (1387)، خانواده و حقوق آن، چ اول، تهران: به‌نشر.

2. جاوید، محمدجواد (1392)، نقد مبانی فلسفی حقوق بشر، چ اول، تهران: نشر مخاطب.

3. حسینی اکبرنژاد؛ هاله و حوریه (1392)، تحلیل کنوانسیون حقوق کودک (مقایسۀ دو نظام اسلام و غرب)، چ اول، تهران: شورای فرهنگی اجتماعی زنان.

4. حکمت‌نیا، محمود (1390)، حقوق زن و خانواده، ج  3، چ اول، تهران: پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشۀ اسلامی.

5. خدامی، نرگس (1388)، «دولت و خانواده»، مجموعه مقالات آسیب‌شناسی خانواده، چ اول، تهران: مرکز امور زنان و خانواده.

6. صفارنیا، محیا (1393)، خانواده در اسناد حقوقی بین‌المللی،  چ اول، تهران: شهر دانش.

7. گاردنر، ویلیام (1387)، جنگ علیه خانواده، ترجمۀ معصومه محمدی، چ دوم، قم: دفتر مطالعات و تحقیقات زنان.

8.  مرکز مطالعات حقوق بشر (1382)، گزیده‌ای از مهم‌ترین اسناد حقوق بشر، چ اول، تهران: گرایش.

9. هیوز، جودی؛ استون، وندی (1388)، «حیات خانواده و اجتماع»، مجموعه مقالات آسیب‌شناسی خانواده، چ اول، تهران: مرکز امور زنان و خانواده.

ب) مقالات

10. حاتمی، علی (1393)، «خانواده در آثار جامعه‌شناسان شرق و غرب»، فصلنامۀ نقد کتاب، ش 3 و 4.

11. غدیری، ماهرو (1395)، «حق تشکیل خانواده و دسترسی به فناوری‌های کمک باروری در پرتو موازین بین‌المللی»، فصلنامۀ حقوق پزشکی، ش 36.

12. گیدنز، آنتونی، «چشم‌انداز خانواده»، نشریۀ آفتاب، ش 29.

 

ج) پایان‌نامه‌ها

13. حسینی، نرگس (1394)، حق بر ازدواج و تشکیل خانواده، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران.

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

14. Foley, Elizabeth (2008), Liberty For All: Reclaiming Individual Privacy In A New Era Of Public Morality ,Yale University Press.

15. Fox, Bonine (2009), Conceptualizing Family, In Family Parents And Gender Relations, Oxford University Press.

16. Cook, Rebecca J. & Cusack, Simone (2010), Gender Stereotyping: Transnational Legal Perspectives, Philadelphia: University Of PennsylvaniaPress.

 

B) Articles

17. Harry, Willekens (2004), “Rights And Duties Of Underage Parents; A Comparative Approach” , International Journal Of Law, Policy And The Family, Vol.18,

18. Clark, Brigitte (1998), “Competing Custody Rights: New Concepts Of 'Family' And The Best Interests Of The Child” , Comparative And International Law Journal Of Southern AfricaVol. 31, Issue 3.

 

C) Documents

18. Committee On The Elimination Of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), General Recommendation No. 21: Equality in marriage and family relations    , 1994

19. Committee On The Elimination Of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), General Recommendation No. 31 :harmful practices,2014

20. Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General Comment No. 18 : harmful practices,2014

21. Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General comment No. 7: Implementing child rights in early childhood.2006

22. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

23. Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee. IRAN. 2011

24. Draft resolution The Commission for Social Development recommends to the Economic and Social Council the adoption of the following draft resolution: Observance of the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family and beyond E/CN.5/2014/L.5

25. Human Rights Council report on the protection of the family and the contribution of families in realizing the right to an adequate standard of living Submission by Amnesty International, 28 October 2015. A/HRC/31/37

26. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

27. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

28. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination    

29. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, A/RES/47/237/1993, Année internationale de la famille.

30. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, A/ RES /59/147/2004

31. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, A/ RES/ 67/142/2012, Preparations for and observance of the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family

32. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, A/RES/68/136/2013, Preparations for and observance of the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family

33. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, A/RES/71/163/2016, Follow-up to the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family and beyond

34. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly A/RES/72/145/2017,Follow-up to the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family and beyond

35. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly A/RES/66/126/2011,Preparations for and observance of the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family

36. Reports of the Secretary-General On Implementation of the objectives of the International Year of the Family and its follow-up processes, A/73/61–E/2018/4

37. Reports of the Secretary-General On Implementation of the objectives of the International Year of the Family and its follow-up processes, A/71/61-E/2016/

38. Reports of the Secretary-General On Celebration of the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family in 2014,A/70/61- E/2015/3

39. Reports of the Secretary-General On Preparations for and observance of the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family in 2014,A /69/61-E /2014/4 

40.  Reports of the Secretary-General On Preparations for and observance of the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family in 2014,A/68/61-E/2013/3

41. Reports of the Secretary-General On Preparations for and observance of the twentieth anniversary of the International Year of the Family in 2014,A/67/61-E/2012/3

42. Reports of the Secretary-General On Follow-up to the tenth anniversary of the International Year of the Family, A/66/62-E/2011/4 

43. Reports of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Secretary-General: Protection of the family: contribution of the family to the realization of the right to an adequate standard of living for its members, particularly through its role in poverty eradication and achieving sustainable development. A/HRC/31/3715 January 2016

44. Resolution Adopted By Human Rights Council ,Protection Of Family,A/HRC/ RES /26/11/2014

45. Resolution Adopted By Human Rights Council , Protection of the family: contribution of the family to the realization of the right to an adequate standard of living for its members, particularly through its role in poverty eradication and achieving sustainable development,A / HRC / RES / 29/22/2015

46. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and its consequences, UN Doc. A/HRC/15/20 ,18 June 2010.

47. Summary of the Human Rights Council panel discussion on the protection of the family Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights ,A/HRC/28/40

48. statement by the International Commission of Jurists and Amnesty International for the A / HRC / RES / 29/22/2015,IOR 41/1994/2015,

49. statement by civil society from all regions of the world, urge the UN Human Rights Council to ensure the Panel discussion entitled “protection of the family” IOR 41/022/2014)

50. UN Human Rights Committee (HRC), CCPR General Comment No. 19:The Family Protection of the Family, the Right to Marriage and Equality of the Spouses, 27 July 1990.

51. UN Human Rights Committee (HRC),CCPR General Comment No. 28 :The equality of rights between men and women,2000

52. world health organization (WHO), Promoting Gender Equality to Prevent Violence against Women, 2009