نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دانشجوی دورة دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار دانشکدة روابط بین‌الملل وزارت امور خارجه، تهران، ایران

چکیده

طی چندین دهة گذشته، منابع آبی زیرزمینی و آبخوان‌ها به‌طور فزاینده‌ای در معرض بهره‌برداری و آلودگی قرار داشته‌اند. این در حالی است که نه در سطح مدیریتی و نه در سطح آکادمیک حقوق بین‌الملل، منابع آبی زیرزمینی مورد توجه چندانی قرار نگرفته‌اند. تعداد موافقت‌نامه‌هایی که برای مدیریت آبخوان‌ها منعقد شده‌اند، انگشت‌شمارند. هرچند تدوین حقوق آب‌های زیرزمینی از میانة قرن بیستم و از سوی انجمن حقوق بین‌الملل به‌عنوان ارائة چارچوبی آکادمیک آغاز شد، در تمامی تلاش‌های صورت‌گرفته، منابع زیرزمینی هویتی مستقل برای خود نداشتند و به‌عنوان موضوعی فرعی در کنار آب‌های سطحی مانند رودخانه و دریاچه‌ها قرار می‌گرفتند؛ تا آنکه کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل تصمیم گرفت مستقل از منابع سطحی به بررسی و توسعة حقوق آب‌های زیرزمینی بپردازد. پیش‌نویس مواد حقوق آبخوان‌های فرامرزی اصلی‌ترین سندی است که به‌طور مستقیم به وضعیت آبخوان‌ها می‌پردازد. ازاین‌رو، تلاش می‌شود با ذکر پیشینه‌ای از نحوة تنظیم پیش‌نویس، علاوه‌بر تبیین منابع آبی و آبخوانی در جهان، حقوق مدیریت منابع آبخوانی که مورد توجه کمیسیون بوده است، بررسی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Evolution of the Law of Transboundary Aquifers in International Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Naderi 1
  • Hossein Sadat Meidani 2

1 MA Student, School of International Relations, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., School of International Relations, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Groundwater constitutes approximately 98% of the world’s accessible freshwater resources. Since population growth and climate change are increasingly putting pressure on water resources, groundwater protection and management is of paramount importance for life on earth. Many aquifers are in peril due to poor governance and insufficient legal frameworks. While surface water has been given considerable attention, groundwater has not received the same recognition, where the number of international agreements for rivers or lakes is outnumbering those applicable to transboundary aquifers. The earliest articulation of an international legal regime specifically applicable to these transboundary groundwater resources is found in the work of the International Law Association in its Helsinki Rules of 1966. Nearly seventy years later, following six years of research by International Law Commission, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution containing nineteen Draft Articles on transboundary aquifers. However, there are no more than ten treaties that have aquifer-specific legal mechanisms in international context so far. These facts lead to lack of established laws and procedures with respect to aquifers. Furthermore, when it comes to practice, there is plenty of ambiguity about the applicability of the principles over aquifers and groundwater which are naturally adopted from the surface water law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Aquifer
  • Draft Articles on Law of Transboundary Aquifers
  • international law commission
  • International Water Law
  • UN Watercourse Convention

انگلیسی

A) Books

1. Boisson de Chazournes, Laurence (2013), Fresh Water in International Law, New York Oxford University Press, First edition.

2. Conti, Kirstin I (2014), Factors Enabling Transboundary Aquifer Cooperation a Global Analysis, Delft, the International Groundwater Resource Assessment Centre, First edition.

3. Fitts, Charles (2012), Groundwater Science, Cambridge, Academic Press, Second Edition.

4. Louka, Elli (2006), International Environmental Law: Fairness, Effectiveness, and World Order, New York Cambridge University Press, First edition.

5. Margat, Jean, Gun, Jac van der (2013), Groundwater Around the World: Geographic Synopsis, New York, CRC Press, First edition.

6. Miller, Tyler (2011), Living in the Environment Concepts, Connections, and Solutions, Belmont, Brooks Cole, Seventeenth Edition.

7. Sands, Philippe (2012), Principles of International Environmental Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Third Edition.

8. Stephan, Raya Marian (2009), Transboundary Aquifers: Managing a Vital Resource, Paris, UNESCO, First Edition.

 

B) Articles[V1] 

9. McCaffrey, Stephen C (2009), “Current Developments the International Law Commission Adopts Draft Articles on Transboundary Aquifers”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 103.

10. Eckstein Gabriel, Sindico, Francesco (2014), “The Law of Transboundary Aquifers: Many Ways of Going Forward, But Only One Way of Standing Still”, Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law, Vol. 23, Issue 1.

11. Mechlem, Kerstin (2011), “Past, Present and Future of the International Law of Transboundary Aquifers”, International Community Law Review, Vol 22.[V2] 

12. Wilk, Alexander (2016), “The Utilization of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System In Light Of Islamic Norms and Its Impact on the Emerging Law of Transboundary Fossil Aquifers”, University of Essex.

13. Milmana, Anita & Rayb, Isha (2011), “Interpreting The Unknown: Uncertainty And The Management Of Transboundary Groundwater”, Water International, Vol. 36, No. 5.

14. Conti1, Kirstin I. & Gupta, Joyeeta (2015), “Global Governance Principles for the Sustainable Development of Groundwater Resources”, International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Volume 16, Issue 6.

15. Nagle, Renee Martin (2011), “Fossil Aquifers: A Common Heritage of Mankind”, George Washington Journal of Energy and Environmental Law, Vol. 2, Issue 3.

16. Carlson, Justin (2011), “A Critical Resource or Just a Wishing Well? A Proposal To Codify The Law On Transboundary Aquifers And Establish An Explicit Human Right To Water”, American University International Law Review, Vol. 26.

17. Traversi, Christine (2011), “The Inadequacies of The 1997 Convention On International Water Courses and 2008 Draft Articles On the Law of Transboundary Aquifers”, Houston Journal of International Law, Vol. 33, Issue 2.

 

C) Reports

18. Gleick, Peter H. (2014), The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources, The World’s Water Vol. 8, Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security.

19. Mogadam, Noosheen, Whitworth, Thomas (2016), The Water Report 2016, Stockholm International Water Institute, SIWI.

20. UN World Water Development Report (2017), Wastewater: The Untapped Resource, Paris, UNESCO.

21. UN General Assembly (2016), Resolution A/RES/71/150, the Law of Transboundary Aquifers.

22. UN General Assembly (2016), Resolution, A/71/517, the Law of Transboundary Aquifers.

23. UN General Assembly (2013), Report of the Sixth Committee, the Law of Transboundary Aquifers, UN Doc. A/68/470.

24. UN General Assembly Official Records (2016), Sixth Committee, Summary record of the 18th meeting, A/C.6/71/SR.18.

25. UN International Law Commission (2008), Draft articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, vol. II, Part 2.

26. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (2016), International Hydrological Programme Water, Megacities and Global Change.

27. World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund (2017), Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines.