نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی وزارت بهداشت، درمان و آموزش پزشکی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق خصوصی، مؤسسۀ عالی آموزش و پژوهش، مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

«پارلمان اروپا» در 21 آوریل 2004، «رهنمود 35 /2004 دربارۀ مسئولیت محیط‌زیستی راجع به پیشگیری و جبران خسارت‌های محیط‌زیستی» را برای پاسخ به فجایع زیست‌محیطیِ با ابعاد خسارت گسترده به تصویب رسانید. «رهنمود» یادشده دو نوع رژیمِ مسئولیت مدنی محض (به‌عنوان اصل) و مسئولیت مدنی مبتنی بر تقصیر (استثنا بر اصل) را شناسایی کرده است. متصدی یا عامل زیان می‌تواند در مقابل مسئولیت محض تحمیلی، دفاعی را که در بخش الف بند 4 مادۀ 8 «رهنمود» بیان شده (دفاع رعایتِ مجوز دولتی)، به‌عمل آورد و دولت‌های عضو مختارند که دفاع متصدی یا عامل زیان را بپذیرند یا رد کنند؛ این دفاعِ اختیاری (به لحاظ اختیار دولت‌ها در پذیرش یا رد)، استثنا بر نظام مسئولیت مدنی محضِ «رهنمود» است. آوردن «دفاع رعایتِ مجوز» در پیش‌نویسِ «رهنمود» و نحوۀ استناد به آن و نوع اثر این دفاع تا گنجاندن نهایی آن در «رهنمود» روندی پرفراز و نشیب داشت و به‌علت تأثیر منفی آن بر «مسئولیت مدنی محض زیست‌محیطی اروپا» و تضعیف این نظام مسئولیت، انتقادهایی را به‌همراه داشت که به تحلیل آن موارد می‌پردازیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal critique and analyzing of Compliance with the State permit Defense for Environmental Damage in the 2004 European Environmental Directive

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Malekshahi 1
  • Hamed Malekshahi 2

1 Assistant Prof.,Member of the faculty of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education

2 Ph.D. student of private law, Higher Education and Research Institute, Management and Planning

چکیده [English]

On April 21, 2004, the European Parliament passed "Directive 2004/35/CE of the European Parliament and the Council of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental" to respond to environmental disasters with widespread damage; Directive have identified two types of strict liability(as originally) and liability based on fault(exceptionally); the operator can be against the strict liability, the defense in Section A 4 Article 8 provides Directive(permit defence), and it has the authority of the member states to accept the operator's defence(Optional defense). This defense is the exception to the strict liability; the inclusion of the permit defence in the Directive and the form of citation and that's effect has changed to its final insertion in the Directive several times and the critique of its impact on European environmental strict liability that has weakened this system of liability, which we are analyzing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • 2004 European Environmental Directive
  • permit defense
  • strict liability
  • Environmental liability
  • polluter pay principle

1. فارسی

1. نقیب‌زاده، احمد (1382). اتحادیۀ اروپا از آغاز تا امروز، چ اول، تهران: قومس.

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

2. De Sadeleer, Nicolas, (2008), Environmental Principles: From Political Slogans to Legal Rules, Oxford University Press, London.

3. Lee, M, (2005), EU Environmental Law: Challenges, Change and Decision-Making, 1st Ed, Hart Publishing, Portland,UK.

4. Sunkin M, David M Ong, Robert Wight ( 2002), Sourcebook on Environmental Law, 2nd ed, Cavendish Publishing Limited.

5. Valerie, Fogleman (2013), The Study on Analysis of integrating the ELD into 11 national legal frameworks, Final Report prepared for the European Commission – DG Environment, Stevens & Bolton LLP. European Union.

 

B) Articles

6. Basse, Ellen Margrethe (2001), "Environmental Liability – Modern Developments", Stockholm Institute for Scandianvian Law Stockholm, Vol. 41, pp. 31-54.

7. Boyd, James; Kunreuther, Howard (1997),"Retroactive Liability or the Public Purse?", journal of Regulatory Economics, Vol. 11, pp. 79-90.

8. Brans, Edward (2001), "White Paper of the European Commission on Environmental Liability’ in ‘Liability for Damage to Public Natural Resources– standing, damage and damage assessment", International Environmental Law and Policy Series, Volume 61,Kluwer Law International, Netherlands.

9. De Smedt K, (2009), "Is Harmonisation always Effective? The Implementation of the Environmental Liability Directive", European, Environmental Law Review vol. 18 Issue 1, by Aspen Publishers, Inc, pp. 2-18.

10.  Faure, Michael G, (2009), "Regulatory Strategies in Environmental Liability", The Regulatory Function of Eiropean Privite Law, Cafaggi, F., Watt, H. Muir, eds., Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Maastricht Faculty of Law Working Paper No. 2011/22. Pp. 129-187, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1713118)

11. Luk,Sandy; Phillips, Victoria and Jen, Sandra, (2004), "The European Directive on Environmental Liability –“Polluter Pays”: from principle to practice?", An environmental NGO commentary on the  Environmental Liability Directive: its adoption at EU level and what it means for the future,30 July 2004 : Digitally available at: http://www.birdlife.org/eu/pdfs/environment_july04_vp.pdf

12. Monti, Alberto, (2002), " Environmental Risks and Insurance A Comparative Analysis of the Role of Insurance in the Management of Environment-Related Risks" , OECD Report, First Summary.

13. Rofina Kum Lin, THAM, (2004), " THE Impact of the EnvironmentalLiability Directive 2004/35 ON English Law", Center for European Legal Studies Exeter Papers in European Law, No. 14, pp. 1-80

14.  Stavang, Juris Endre (2010), "Two challenges for the ECJ when examining the Enviromental Liability Directive", 5 Environmental Liability , Faculty of Law, Department of Private Law and Natural Resources Research Group, University of Oslo, pp. 198-201.

15. Stavang, Juris Endre (2009), "Types and Forms of Inconsistencies in Law – With Particular Reference to Natural Resource",Preliminary version for ”the Grill” at the University of Oslo,University of Oslo The Natural Resources Research Group Preliminary version, pp. 1-36.

16. Tolsma, Hanna. D., & de Graaf, K. J. (2015), "Bending the rules: A Dutch approach to improving the flexible application of environmental standards" , Paper presented at European Group for Public Administration (EGPA 2014), Speyer, Germany.

 

C) Documents (Reports and directives)

17. A report by GeneWatch Uk and the RSPB, "Making the Polluter PayThe Environmental Liability Directive: Letting Down the Environment?"2006 ,www.genewatch.org/uploads/.../ELD_Press_Reportwpoversion.pdf.

18. Common Position, Statement of the Council’s Reasons, European Parliament Amendments at C277 E/29.

19. Directive 2004/35/CE of the European Parliament and the Council of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental. OJ L n 2 143.30.4.200.

20. EFFACE, Directive 2004/35 on Environmental Liability work package 2 on "Instruments actors and institutions" Recital 2 of Directive 2004/35;Environmental Liability: Commission welcomes agreement on new Directive, IP/04/246, 20 February 2004: ELD, recital 2 : European Commission press release: at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-04-246_en.htm

21. Environment Bill[H. L.]HL Deb 31 January 1995 vol 560 cc 1414-86, House again in committee clause 45 http://hansard.millbanksystems.com,/lords/1995/jan/31/environment-bill-hi-1.

22. European Commission Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (COM(2002) 17 final, Explanatory Memorandum, 23 January 2002.

23. European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Environmental Liability with regard to the Prevention and Restoration of Environmental Damage, OJ C151 E/132, January 2002

24. European Commission, White Paper on Environmental Liability. COM(2000) 66 final, , 9 February 2000.

25. European Parliament legislative resolution on the proposal for European Parliament and Council Directive on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage COM(2002) 17 - C5-0088/2002 – 2002/0021(COD) (14 May 2003).

26. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Liability Regulations Guidance Document, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford, Ireland, 2011.

27. ELD, recital; European Commission press release, Environmental Liability: Commission welcomes agreement on new Directive (IP/04/246, 20 February 2004)

28. Green Paper on Remedying Environmental Damage,COM(93),47 final, 14 May 1993.[EU Comission-COM, 1993.

29. Liability for Environmental Damage in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA): Implementation of Good International Practices, © OECD 2012.

30. OECD, The Polluter Pays Pinciple; OECD Analyses and Recommendations, Environment Directorate (OCDE/GD(92)81, 1992), Explanatory Reports, Compensation for Victims of Accidental Pollution, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Paris 1992.

31. Julia Young, Assessing The Impact of The Eu Directive on Environmental Liability on Uk Environmental Legislation, Policy.