نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق عمومی‌ دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه حقوق عمومی ‌دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تنوع زیستی، منبع حیات بشر بر روی کرة زمین و مشتمل بر گیاهان و حیوانات و دیگر ارگانیسم‌هایی است که در آب، زمین و هوا زیست می‌کنند و با هم ارتباط دارند. اقیانوس‌ها دربردارندة بیشترین تنوع زیستی در سطح زمین هستند. در عین حال که پیشرفت فناوری فرصت‌های بیشتری را برای بهره‌برداری از منابع طبیعی اقیانوس‌ها فراهم می‌کند، تهدیدات تنوع زیستی نیز افزایش می‌یابد. این در حالی است که بخش اعظم اقیانوس‌ها در مناطق خارج از صلاحیت ملی، در معنی دریای آزاد و منطقۀ بستر بین‌المللی دریاها، قرار گرفته‌اند که تحت حاکمیت یا صلاحیت هیچ دولتی نیستند. به‌دلیل اهمیت تنوع زیستی دریایی در مناطق خارج از صلاحیت ملی و بهره‌برداری روزافزون از منابع آن، اهتمام جامعۀ جهانی دربارۀ حفاظت از تنوع زیستی این مناطق افزایش یافته است. خلأهای موجود در نظام حقوقی مناطق دریایی خارج از صلاحیت ملی، ضرورت اقدام مؤثر در حفاظت از محیط زیست دریایی در این مناطق را دوچندان می‌کند. در این مقاله سعی شده است تا نظم حقوقی کنونی تنوع زیستی دریایی در مناطق خارج از حوزة صلاحیت ملی و خلأهای آن واکاوی شده و انعقاد موافقت‌نامة اجرایی جدید طبق کنوانسیون حقوق دریاها در این خصوص ارزیابی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Conservation of Marine Biological Diversity in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sasan Seyrafi 1
  • Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi 2
  • Kosar Firouzpour 3

1 Assistant Prof, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Biodiversity is the source of human life on Earth and consist of microorganisms, plants, and animal living on land, in water and air, interacting with each other. The oceans contain most of the biodiversity on the planet but our knowledge and conservation of this habitat and its species is scarce. As technology progress advances more opportunities to access resources beyond national jurisdiction, threats to biodiversity are also increasing. Concerns about the protection of biodiversity in the international community have increased due to the importance of biodiversity, overuse of oceanic ecosystem services and the over-exploitation of oceans. The vacuum existing in legal system and implementing existing frameworks in areas beyond national jurisdiction doubles the necessity of effective acts for conservation of marine environment in these areas. UN General Assembly Resolution 292/69 on June 19th 2015 is a historic step in the creation of the Third Implementing Agreement to the Convention of the law of the sea and a response to the existing vacuum in international framework.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Marine Biodiversity
  • Areas beyond national jurisdiction
  • Law of the Sea Convention
  • Convention on Biological Diversity
  • Agreement on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity

1. فارسی

الف) مقالات

1. صالحی، جواد (1398)،« مسئولیت جبران خسارت به محیط زیست منطقۀ اعماق دریاها در حقوق بین‌الملل عرفی و رویکرد متناقض شعبۀ حل اختلاف بستر دریاها»، فصلنامۀ مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دورۀ 94، ش 1.

2. موسوی، سید فضل الله و معصومه سادت میرمحمدی (1396)، «نظام حقوقی بین­المللی حاکم بر منابع ژنتیکی انسانی و غیرانسانی»، مجلۀ حقوقی بین­المللی، شمارۀ 56، بهار و تابستان 1396.

 

ب) پایان‌نامه

3. اویار حسین، مریم (1388)، حفظ و حمایت از تنوع زیستی در حقوق بین‌الملل، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، استاد راهنما: سید قاسم زمانی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

4. Craik, Neil (2008), The International Law of Environmental Impact Assessment, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

5. Dupuy, Pierre-Marie &d Jorge E. Viñuales (2015), International Environmental Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

6. Schoenbaum, Thomas J. & Michael K. Young (2018), International Environmental Law and Policy: Cases, Materials, and Problems, 3rd edition (Kindle DX version), Durham, NC, Carolina Academic Press

7. Tanaka, Yoshifumi (2012), The International Law of the Sea, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

8. Nanda, Ved P. and George Pring (2013), International Environmental Law and Policy for the 21st Century, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

 

B) Articles

9. Ardron Jeff A., Rosemary Rayfuse, Kristina Gjerde, Robin Warner (2014), “The sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity in ABNJ: What can be achieved using existing international agreements?” Marine Policy, Vol. 49, pp. 98-108.

10. Churchill, Robin (2015), “The LOSC regime for protection of the marine environment – fit for the twenty-first century?” in Rosemary Rayfuse (ed.), Research Handbook on International, Cheltenham, UK /Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp. 3-30.

11. Drankier, Petra, Alex G. Oude Elferink, Bert Visser, Tamara Takacs (2012), “Marine Genetic Resources in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction: Access and Benefit-Sharing” The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, Vol. 27, pp. 375-433

12. Leary, David, Marjo Vierros, Gwenaëlle Hamon, Salvatore Arico and Catherine Monagle (2009), “Marine genetic resources: A review of scientific and commercial interest”, Marine Policy, Vol. 33, pp. 183–194

13. Long, Ronan and Mariamalia Rodríguez Chaves (2015), “Anatomy of A New International Instrument for Marine Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction: First Impressions of the Preparatory Process”, Environmental Liability – Law, Policy and Practice, Vol. 23, 213-229

14. Proelss, Alexander (2008), “Marine Genetic Resources under UNCLOS and the CBD,” German Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 51, pp. 417-446

15. Sand, Peter (1987), “The Rise of Regional Agreements for Marine Environment Protection ‘in The Law of the Sea, Essays in Memory of Jean Carroz, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, pp. 223-232

16. Tladi, Dire (2015), “Conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction: towards an implementing agreement” in Rosemary Rayfuse (ed.), Research Handbook on International, Cheltenham, UK /Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp. 259-271.

17. Trouwborst, Arie (2013), “Migratory Species Conservation in Warming Polar Oceans, With Particular Reference to Seaboards” in E. J. Molenaar, A. G. Oude Elferink and D. R. Rothwell (eds.), The Law of the Sea and The Polar Regions: Interactions between Global and Regional Regimes, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 163-191.

18. Vallega, Adalberto (2002), “The Regional Seas in the 21st Century: An overview”, Ocean and Coastal Management, Vol.45, pp. 925-934

19. Voneky, Silja and Felix Beck (2017), Commentary on Article 145 in Alexander Proelss (ed.) The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: A Commentary, Munich, Germany/ Portland, OR, USA, Verlag C. H. Beck/Hart Publishing, pp. 1007-1028.

20. Warner, Robin, (2015a), “Conserving Marine Biodiversity In Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction: Co-Evolution And Interaction With The Law Of The Sea” in Donald R. Rothwell, Alex G. Oude Elferink, Karen N. Scott, and Tim Stephens (eds.), The Oxford Handbook on the Law of the Sea, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 752-776.

21. Warner, Robin (2015b), “Environmental assessment in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction” in in Rosemary Rayfuse (ed.), Research Handbook on International, Cheltenham, UK /Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp. 291-312.

22. Wright, Glen, Julien Rochette and Elisabeth Druel (2015), “Marine protected areas in areas beyond national jurisdiction” in Rosemary Rayfuse (ed.), Research Handbook on International, Cheltenham, UK /Northampton, MA, USA, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp. 272-290.

 

C) Documents

23. CBD [Convention on Biological Diversity], adopted 5 June 1992, in force 29 December 1993, United Nations Treaty Series, vol.1769, pp. 143-169.

24. Draft text [of an agreement under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction], Intergovernmental Conference on an international legally binding instrument on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction, Third Session, New York, 19–30 August 2019, A/CONF.232/2019/6.

25. First World Ocean Assessment I (The First Global Integrated Marine Assessment), Group of Experts of the Regular Process available at: https://www.un.org/regularprocess/content/first-world-ocean-assessment.

26. ISBA [International Seabed Authority] (2010). Recommendations for the guidance of contractors for the assessment of the possible environmental impacts arising from exploration for polymetallic nodules in the Area, ISBA/16/LTC/7.

27. Nagoya Protocol [on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising], adopted 29 October 2010, in force 12 October 2014, available at: https://www.cbd.int/abs/doc/protocol/nagoya-protocol-en.pdf

28. UN [United Nations] Secretary-General (2004). Report of the Secretary-General on Oceans and the law of the sea, A/59/62/Add.1

29. UN [United Nations] (2015). Outcome of the Ad Hoc Open of the Ad Hoc Open-ended Informal Working Group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction and Co Chairs’ summary of discussions, Annex to Letter dated 13 February 2015 from the Co-Chairs of the Ad Hoc Open ended Informal Working Group to the President of the General Assembly, A/69/780.

30. UN [United Nations] (2017). Report of the Preparatory Committee established by the General Assembly resolution 69/292: Development of an International Legally Binding Instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea on Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biological Diversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, A/AC.287/2017/PC.4/2.

31. UN [United Nations] (2002). Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August- 4 September 2002, A/CONF.199/20.

32.UNCLOS [United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea], adopted 10 December 1982, in force 16 November1994, United Nations Treaty Series, vol. 1833, pp. 396-581.

33.UNGA [United Nations General Assembly] (2004). Resolution 59/24, A/RES/59/24

34.UNGA [United Nations General Assembly] (2015). Resolution 69/292, A/RES/69/292

35.UNGA [United Nations General Assembly] (2015). Resolution 70/1, A/RES/70/1

36. UNGA [United Nations General Assembly] (2017). Resolution, A/RES/72/249

37. Wright, Glen, Julien Rochette, Kristina Gjerde and Isabel Seeger (2018). The Long and Winding Road: Negotiating A Treaty for The Conservation and Sustainable Use of Marine Biodiversity in Areas beyond National Jurisdiction, The Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations (IDDRI), Study N°08/18 August 2018.

 

D) Cases

38. ITLOS [International Tribunal for The Law of the Sea] Seabed Disputes Chamber, Responsibilities and obligations of States with respect to activities in the Area, Advisory Opinion, 1 February 2011, ITLOS Reports 2011, pp. 10-78.

39. UNCLOS [United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea] Annex VII Arbitral Tribunal (2016). In The Matter of the South China Sea Arbitration (Philippines v. China), Merits, Award of 12 July 2016, available at: https://pcacases.com/web/sendAttach/2086