نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه الزهراء (س)، تهران، ایران

2 دانش ‏آموختۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه مفید، قم، ایران

چکیده

وضعیت حقوقی غزه به‌عنوان یک سرزمین اشغالی همواره موضوع مباحث محافل گوناگون دانشگاهی و همچنین رویۀ قضایی ملی و بین‌المللی بوده است. مقالۀ حاضر با مدنظر قرار دادن این مباحث در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که آیا خروج نیروهای رژیم صهیونیستی از غزه به معنای پایان وضعیت اشغالگری رژیم صهیونیستی است؟ در پاسخ به این پرسش، نوشتار حاضر که با رویکردی توصیفی-تحلیلی و با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌ای و اسناد و رویه‌های قضایی معتبر بین‌المللی نگارش یافته، بر این فرض استوار است. به استناد معیار «کنترل مؤثر» و تحلیل مؤلفه‌های این استاندارد که نقش بسزایی در تحول مفهومی اشغال در عرصۀ بین‌المللی داشته است، می‌توان ضمن اثبات تداوم اشغال اراضی غزه توسط رژیم صهیونیستی پس از خروج نیروهای مسلح اسرائیلی از این منطقه در سال 2005، تکالیفی را نیز برای آن رژیم به‌عنوان اشغالگر براساس حقوق بین‌الملل ایجاد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Conceptual evolution of occupation from the point of view of international law, with emphasis on the situation in the Gaza Strip

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Ahmadinezhad 1
  • Yaser Aminalroaya 2
  • Mohsen Mataji 3

1 Assistant Professor, University of Alzahra, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Allameh Tabataba'i, Tehran, Iran

3 PHD Student, Mofid University, Qom, Iran

چکیده [English]

The legal status of Gaza as an Occupied Territory is the subject of discussions of various academic circles as well as national and international judicial procedures. Considering these issues, the present article seeks to answer the question of whether departure of Zionist regime's forces from Gaza mean the end of the occupation of the Zionist regime? In answer to this question, the present paper, which has been written with a descriptive-analytical approach and using library resources and valid international judicial documents and procedures, is based on the assumption that Which is based on standard of "effective control" and analysis of the components of this standard, which has played a significant role in the conceptual development of occupation in the international arena It can be proved the occupation of the Gaza Strip by the Zionist regime After the departure of the Israeli armed forces from this area in 2005, Created the assignments of that regime as an occupier based on international law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • occupation
  • Effective Control
  • Sovereignty
  • Gaza Strip
  • Zionist regime

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

1. افشاری، مریم (1388)، فلسطین، دیوار حائل و حقوق بین‌الملل، تهران: خرسندی، چ اول.

 

ب) مقالات

1. اخوان خرازیان، مهناز (1388)، «اعمال حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه در مخاصمة اخیر نوار غزه»، مجلة حقوقی بین‌المللی، ش40.

2. آمسیز، آردی (1387)، «کنوانسیون چهارم ژنو و سرزمین‌های اشغالی فلسطین»، ترجمة ستار عزیزی، پژوهش حقوقی، ش ۳۸.

3. دهقانی پوده، حمیدرضا (1387)، «تحولات غزه از دیدگاه حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه»، فصلنامة سیاست خارجی، سال ‌دوم، ش 3، پائیز 1387.

4. سیاه رستمی، هاجر (1387)، «حقوق بشر در سرزمین‌های اشغالی»، مجلة حقوقی بین‌المللی، ش 39.

5. لسانی، سید حسام‌الدین (1394)، «حمایت حقوق بین‌الملل از میراث فرهنگی و تاریخی در زمان اشغال نظامی با تأکید بر مسئولیت ایالات متحدة آمریکا در دوران اشغال نظامی عراق»، مجلة مطالعات حقوقی دانشگاه شـیراز، دورة هفتم، ش 3.

6. رمضانی قوام‌آبادی، محمدحسین (1395)، «از شناسایی دولت فلسطین تا عضویت در دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی»، فصلنامة دولت‌پژوهی، مجلة دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی، سال دوم، ش7.

7. ممتاز، جمشید؛ علیزاده، مسعود؛ زرنشان، شهرام (1396)، «محاصرة دریایی غزه از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل»، فصلنامة مطالعات راهبردی، ش 76.

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

8. Bell, A, (2008), International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel’s Right to Self-Defense, 7 Jerusalem Viewpoints.

9. Craven, Matthew, (2009), The Decolonization of International Law: State Succession and the Law of Treaties, New York, Oxford University Press.

10. Kraska, James & Raul Pedrozo (2013), International Maritime Security Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Boston.

11. O'Doherty, Mark  (2018), The Legacy of Benjamin Netanyahu and the Likud Party in Israel, A Military Government facilitating Disregard for Innocent Life, Overpopulation, Suicide and Violent Extremism in Gaza, Crystal Grove Books.

12. Yoram Dinstein (2009), The International Law of Belligerent Occupation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

B) Articles 

13. Benvenisti, Eyal (1994), “Responsibility for the protection of human rights under the interim Israeli – Palestinian agreements”, in Israeli Law Review, Vol. 28, Issue 2-3.

14. Ceron, John, (2006), “Human Dignity in the line of Fire: The Application of International Human Rights Law During Armed Conflict, Occupation and Peace Operations”, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law.

15. Darcy, Shane & Reynolds, John, (2010), “An Enduring Occupation: The Status of the Gaza Strip from the Perspective of International Humanitarian Law”, Journal of Conflict & Security Law.

16. Ferraro, Tristan, (2012), “Determining the beginning and end of an occupation under international humanitarian law”, International Review of Red Cross, Vol. 94, No. 885.

17. Lancaster, Nicholas F, (2006), “Occupation Law, Sovereignty, and Political Transformation: Should The Hague Regulations and the Fourth Geneva Convention Still be Considered Customary International Law?” Military Law Review.

18. Samson, Elizabeth (2010), “Is Gaza Occupied?: Redefining the Status of Gaza Under International Law”, American University International Law Review, (25)5.

19. Shany, Yuval (2009), “The Law Applicable to Non occupied Gaza: A Comment on Bassiouni V. Prime Minster of Israel”, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Faculty of Law.

 

C) Documents and Case Law

20. Al Basyouni et al. v. The Prime Minister et al. Judgment, The Supreme Court sitting as the High Court of Justice, HCJ 9132/07, 27 December 2008.

21. Baker, Alan, Israel's Rights as a Nation-State in International Diplomacy, Jerusalem Ctr Public Affairs, 2011.

22. Beit Sourik Village Council v. The Government of Israel: A Matter of Principle, Text supreme court judgment regarding the security fence, 30 June 2004, H.C.J. 2056/04.

23. Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda(Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo), ICJ, Judgement, 19 December 2005.

24. General Assembly, United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East, A/RES/42/69, 2 December 1987.

25. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Aug. 12, 1949.

26. Gisha – Legal Center for Freedom of Movement, Disengaged occupiers: the legal status of Gaza, Position Paper, 2007

27. Hague Convention (II) with Respect to the Law and Customs of War on Land and its Annex: Regulation Concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, July 29, 1899

28. Hague Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its Annex: Regulations Concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, Oct. 18, 1907.

29. Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967(Michael Lynk), Thirty-fourth session,27 February-24 March 2017.

30. Human Rights Council, Report of the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict’ (15 September 2009) UN Doc. A/HRC/12/48.

31. ICJ Advisory Opinion, Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda), 2005.

32. ICJ, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, 2004.

33. Ilascu and Others v. Moldova and Russia, European Court of Human Rights, judgment 8 July 2004 

34. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Security Cabinet Declares Gaza Hostile Territory ,19 September 2007

35. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Operation in Gaza, 27 December 2008, Factual and Legal Aspects, July 2009.

36. Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Disengagement Plan – General Outline ,18 April 2004.

37. Issa And Others v Turkey, European Court of Human Rights judgment 16 Nov 2004

38. Jaber al Bassiouni Ahmed et al v The Prime Minister and Minister of Defense (Petition for an Order Nisi and an Urgent Request for Injunction) HCJ 9132/07 (28 October 2007).

39. Loizidou v. Turkey, European Court of Human Rights, judgment 28 July 1998

40. Military Order Regarding Closed Territories. The territory of the West Bank is hereby declared a closed territory, order No. 3, 8 July 1967.

41. Office of the United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process, Report to the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee, New York, 18 September 2017.

42. PLO Negotiation Affairs Department, The Israel “Disengagement” Plan: Gaza Still Occupied, September 2005,Available at:https://unispal.un.org/DPA/DPR/unispal.nsf/bc8b0c56b7bf621185256cbf005ac05f/f7c5f26122c733598525707b006097a9?OpenDocument.

43. Project of an International Declaration concerning the Laws and Customs of War, Brussels, 27 August 1874.

44. Prosecutor v. Tadic(Appeals Chamber, Decision on the Defense Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction) ICTY-9-1-AR72 ,2 October 1995.

45. Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, Additional Protocol I, 1977

46. Report of the Independent Fact-Finding Committee on Gaza: No Safe Place, 30 April 2009.

47. Security Council resolution 478 (1980), S/RES/478.

48. Security Council resolution 497, Adopted by the Security Council at its 2319th meeting, 17 December 1981, S/RES/497.

49. Security Council resolution 799, 18 December 1992.

50. Security Council, Report of The Secretary General Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Security Council Resolution 808, S/25704, 3 May 1993.

51. The Laws of War on Land. Oxford, 9 September 1880.

52. The United Kingdom's Ministry of Defense, the Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict, 2004.

53. Tsemel et al. v. Minister of Defense et al., The Israeli High Court of Justice Paradigm' 37(3), 102/82, 1988.

54. UN high commissioner on Human Rights, Statement of Special Rapporteur for the Palestinian Territories Occupied Since 1967 for Presentation to the Special Session

55. of the Human Rights Council on the Situation in the Gaza Strip, 9 January 2009.