دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق، الهیات و علوم سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد، گروه روابط بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

حق بر آموزش، از حقوق بنیادین بشر است که نظیر سایر حقوق مشابه باید همۀ افراد بدون تبعیض از آن برخوردار شوند. این حق در اسناد مختلف حقوق بشر مورد تأکید قرار گرفته است. ازاین‌رو، نابرابری جنسیتی در آموزش نقض آشکار حق مزبور، محسوب می‌شود. مقالۀ حاضر، با بررسی چارچوب‌های حقوق بشری مربوط که متشکل از معاهدات بین‌المللی، گزارش نهادهای حقوق بشری و رویۀ دولت‌هاست، به این نتیجه رسیده که ماهیت تعهد بر برابری آموزشی تعهدی دوژوره است که نقض آن موجب ایجاد مسئولیت بین‌المللی برای دولت‌ها می‌شود. این تعهدات ماهیت سلبی ندارد، بلکه در توازن با ماهیت ایجابی خود رفتار دولت‌ها را هدایت و نظم می‌بخشد. در واقع، این تعهدات نه‌تنها به موانعی که زنان در برخورداری از این حق مواجهند، می‌پردازد؛ بلکه زمینه‌های تحقق آن را نیز مهیا می‌سازد و ضمن هویت بخشیدن به مسئلۀ نابرابری جنسیتی، با آن مبارزه می‌کند و در تمام حوزه‌های تقنینی و اجرایی، دولت‌ها را متعهد به ایجاد چارچوب‌های تعریف‌شده برای رفع تبعیض و تضمین حقوق زنان در مسئلۀ آموزش می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

States' Obligations to Create Gender Equality in Education

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Seyed Hatami 1
  • Nasrin Mosaffa 2

1 Ph.D. in Public International Law, Department of Public & International Law, College of Law and Political Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Prof., Department of International Relations, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The right to education is one of the fundamental human rights that all persons should enjoy without discrimination. This right has been emphasized in various human rights documents. Thus, gender inequality in education is explicit breach of this right. The present paper, seek to relevant human rights frameworks consisted of international treaties, reports of human rights bodies and States practices, concludes that the nature of the commitment to educational equality is de juré, that breach of this will create international responsibility for countries. These obligations do not have a negative nature, but rather direct and regulate the behavior of States in balance with their positive nature. In fact, these commitments not only overcome the barriers women face in exercising this right, but also provide the grounds for their realization and while identifying the problem of gender inequality, fights it. In all legislative and executive fields, countries committed on the creation of defined frameworks for the elimination of discrimination and guarantee the women's rights in education.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • gender equality
  • Gender discrimination
  • State Obligations
  • right to education
  • Sustainable Development Goals
1. فارسی
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3. اینترنتی
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