دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانش‌آموختۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

این نوشتار به بررسی مبانی حقوقی حق بر آب در حقوق بین‌الملل و همچنین رعایت آن در رویۀ محاکم ملی و محاکم داوری در اختلافات سرمایه‌گذاری مربوط به حوزۀ آب می‌پردازد. حق بر آب هنوز در هیچ معاهدۀ جهانی به‌صراحت شناخته نشده است. لکن کمیتۀ حقوق اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی طی تفسیر عام شمارۀ 15 مصوب 2002 حق بر آب را که قبلاً در منشور حقوق بین‌المللی بشر وجود داشت، به‌صراحت به‌عنوان یک حق مستقل اعلام کرد. مجمع عمومی و شورای حقوق بشر نیز در سال 2010 این حق را به رسمیت شناختند. این حق از لحاظ محتوا، دامنه و همچنین ضمانت اجرا با ابهاماتی مواجه است، ولی شناسایی روزافزون آن در نظام حقوقی دولت‌ها، قابلیت تعقیب آن در محاکم و سازوکارهای نظارتی شورای حقوق بشر جملگی نشان می‌دهند که موجودیت مستقلی یافته است. حقوق بین‌الملل عرفی نیز مؤید این ادعاست. در پایان، ضمن بررسی رویۀ محاکم داوری در اختلافات سرمایه‌گذاری این یافته به‌دست آمده است که این محاکم نه‌تنها بر موجودیت این حق صحه گذاشته‌اند، بلکه تعهدات دولت‌ها در خصوص حق بر آب شهروندان را به‌طور موازی و همسنگ با تعهدات سرمایه‌گذار خارجی اعمال کرده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Right to Water in the Corpus of International Law and its Protection in Precedents of International Investment Arbitration

نویسنده [English]

  • Farshad Geravand

Ph.D. in International Law, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

This paper deals with the legal status of the right to water in international law and also its protection through the precedent of water-related international investment tribunals and domestic judicial ones. Right to water has not yet been recognized in a universal treaty but the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognized it in General Comment No. 15 as a separate right. This was further buttressed by both UN General Assembly and Human Rights Council resolutions in 2010. This right while facing ambiguities in terms of content, scope and judicial enforcement but the increasing attempts by the States to incorporate it into their national statutes and the supervisory mechanisms adopted by the Human Rights Council all implying that this right is legal and binding. This claim is also reinforced by international customary law. In the end, the author explored the recognition of this right in light of some water-related investment arbitrations to show that how tribunals applied both the right to water and foreign investors’ rights in parallel and with the same weight.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • General Comment No. 15
  • right to water
  • International investment arbitration
  • Bill of Human Rights
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