دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی و مدرس دانشگاه، تهران، ایران

3 پژوهشگر حقوق بین‌الملل و قاضی دادگستری، ایران

چکیده

حقوق بشردوستانه در مخاصمات مسلحانة دریایی پس از انعقاد کنوانسیون دوم ژنو در 12 اوت 1949 برخلاف حقوق مخاصمات در خشکی، از بعد معاهده‌ای هیچ تحولی را تجربه نکرده است. هرچند بخشی از مقررات پروتکل اول الحاقی به کنوانسیون‌های 1949 ژنو و از جمله کل بخش چهارم آن پروتکل قابل اعمال در مخاصمات مسلحانة دریایی نیز است.
حقوق بشردوستانة حاکم بر مخاصمات مسلحانة دریایی، از آنجا که بیشتر منابع آن، محصول سال‌های ابتدایی قرن بیستم بود، با پیدایش ابزارها و شیوه‌های نوین جنگ دریایی دیگر نمی‌توانست همپای پیشرفت فناوری در وسایل و ابزارهای جنگ دریایی پیش برود و به همین دلیل نیازمند توسعه و تدوین مقررات جدید است.
با بررسی قواعد عرفی و بخشی از حقوق بین‌الملل نرم مشاهده می‌شود که به‌رغم نبود هنجارهای نوظهور معاهده‌ای در این زمینه، حقوق بشردوستانة حاکم بر مخاصمات مسلحانة دریایی تحولات و توسعه‌هایی را از سر گذرانده است. عمدة چنین تحولاتی نیز در خصوص اقدامات احتیاطی پیش از حمله، مفهوم و مصداق هدف نظامی، نبرد در مناطق مختلف دریایی، هواپیماها و حمایت از محیط زیست دریایی دیده می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

From Geneva to San Remo; Developments of Humanitarian Law on Armed Conflicts at Sea

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Ali Hosseiniazad 1
  • Mahshid Ajeli Lahiji 2
  • Majid zahmatkesh 3

1 Ph.D. Student in International Law,, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in International Law,, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Humanitarian laws applicable to the marine armed conflicts have not been faced with any development after 12 August 1949 through the conventional norms unlike land armed conflicts. However, some parts of the First Protocol, inter alia, the whole of its fourth part apply to the marine armed conflicts. Developments and progresses had been emerged in the context of modern technology and naval warfare have shown that the law of armed conflicts at sea need development and codification, because most of its instruments were created in the 20th century and were almost old. Through analyzing the customary norms, and some aspects of international soft law, specially The San Remo Manual, can be found that despite the absence of new conventional norms in this context, but the humanitarian law applicable on the armed conflicts at sea has had a sort of developments that most of them are about precautions in attacks, concept of the military objectives, military activities in different areas of the Sea, aircrafts and protection of marine environments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • The San Remo Manual
  • Development and Codification
  • Naval Warfare
  • Humanitarian law
  • Armed conflicts
1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
1. ضیایی بیگدلی، محمدرضا (1394)، حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه، تهران: گنج دانش.
ب) مقالات
3. زمانی، سید قاسم (1375)، «حقوق جنگ دریایی و تحولات جدید»، مجلۀ سیاست دفاعی، ش 17.
 
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
4. Heinegg, Heintschel von, (2009), “the Law of Armed Conflict at Sea”, in: Dieter Fleck, The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law, London, Oxford University Press.
5. Henckaerts, Jean-Marie and Dowald-Beck, Louise, (2005), Customary International Humanitarian Law, vol. I (Rules), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
6. International Committee of the Red Cross, (1987), Commentary on the Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions, Leiden/Boston, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
7. Meron, Theodor, (1991), Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law, USA, Clarendon Press.
8. Pictet, Jean S., (1960), the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949; Commentary, Geneva, ICRC.
9. Sassoli, Marco, Antoine A. Bouvier and Anne Quintin, (2014), How Does Law Protect In War?, Volume I, Geneva, ICRC.
10. Schindler, Dietrich and Toman, Jiri (eds), (2004), The Laws of Armed Conflicts: A Collection of Conventions, Resolutions and Other Documents, 4th ed., Leiden/Boston, M. Nijhoff.
11. Schindler, Dietrich and Toman, Jiri, (1988), the Laws of Armed Conflicts, Leiden/Boston, Martinus Nihjoff Publisher.
12. Solis, Gary D., (2010), the Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
13. Thomas, A.R. & Duncan, James C. (1999), Annotated Supplement to The Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, Newport, Rhode Island, Naval War College.
 
B)Articles
14. Dinstein, Yoram (2002), “Legitimate Military Objectives Under the the Current Jus in Bello”, International Law Studies series, Vol. 78.
15. Doswald-Beck, Louise (1995), “The San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea”, The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 89, No. 1.
16. Doyle, Jr., James H., (1998), “International Law and Naval Operations”, Int'l L. Stud. Ser. US Naval War Col, Vol. 72.
17. Fenrick, William J., (1986), “The Exclusion Zone Device in the Law of Naval Warfare”, CAN. Y.B. INT'L L., Vol. 24.
18. Hanke, Heinz M. (1993). “The 1923 Hague Rules of Air Warfare - A contribution to the development of international law protecting civilians from air attack”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 33.
19. Heinegg, Wolff Heintschel von, (2006), “The Current State of The Law of Naval Warfare: A Fresh Look at the San Remo Manual”, Int'l L. Stud. Ser. US Naval War Col., Vol. 82.
20. Heinegg, Wolff Heintschel von, & Michael Donner, (1994), “New Developments in the Protection of the Natural Environment in Naval Armed Conflicts”, German Y.B. Int'l L., Vol. 37.
21. O'Rourke, Ronald (1988), “the Tanker War”, US Naval Instutute, Proceedings Vol. 114/5/1,023.
22. Robertson, Jr., Horace B., (1991), “Modern Technology and the Law of Armed Conflict at Sea”, International Law Studies series, Vol. 64.
23. Stephens, D.G. & Fitzpatrick, M.D., (1999), “Legal Aspects of the Contemporary Naval Mine Warfare”, Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. Vol. 21.
24. The Commander's Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations, in: Robertson, Jr., Horace B. (1991), International Law Stadies, Vol. 64
 
C)Main Documents
25. Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva, 12 August 1949.
26. Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Geneva, 12 August 1949.
27. Convention (X) for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare to the Principles of the Geneva Convention. The Hague, 18 October 1907.
28. Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD), signed at Geneva on 18 May 1977
29. Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field (Lieber Code). 24 April 1863
30. London Declaration concerning the Laws of Naval War, Feb. 26, 1909,
31. Manual Concerning Safety Measures Relating to Military Activities Potentially Hazardous to Civil Aircraft Operations, ICAO Doc. 9554-AN/932 (1990).
32. Human Rights Council, Report of the international fact-finding mission to investigate violations of international law, including international humanitarian and human rights law, resulting from the Israeli attacks on the flotilla of ships carrying humanitarian assistance, 27 September 2010, UN A/HRC/15/21
33. IDF Chief Military Advocate General Staff, Avichai Mandelblit’s testimony to the Turkel Committee: Public Commission to Examine the Maritime Incident of May 31, 2010, Session Number 4, 26 August 2010
D) Websites
34. Official Website of ICRC: https://www.icrc.org/eng/war-and-law/treaties-customary-law/geneva-conventions/overview-geneva-conventions.htm
37. ICRC, The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols, 29-10-2010 Overview, at: https://www.icrc.org/eng/war-and-law/treaties-customary-law/geneva-conventions/overview-geneva-conventions.htm (last visited on: 02/01/2019)