دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه حقوق بین‌الملل و عمومی، پردیس فارابی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، پردیس فارابی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

از ابتدای پیدایش سازمان‌های بین‌المللی همواره دو نوع کارکرد برای سازمان‌ها درنظر گرفته می‌شد. برخی سازمان‌ها را بازیگران حقوقی مستقل قلمداد می‌کردند و عده‌ای آنها را صرفاً ابزاری برای تحقق اهداف دولت‌های مؤسسشان می‌پنداشتند. در پرتو این دو طرز تلقی، دو نگاه حقوقی متفاوت نسبت به قوانین تولیدشده در درون سازمان‌های بین‌المللی نیز شکل گرفت. براساس نگاه نخست قواعد سازمان همچون حقوق دولت‌ها، جزء حقوق داخلی سازمان محسوب شده و جدا از حقوق بین‌الملل تلقی می‌شد و براساس نگاه دوم قواعد سازمان تنها بخشی از پیکرة حقوق بین‌الملل تلقی می‌شد. هریک از این دو دیدگاه تبعات کاملاً جداگانه‌ای به‌ویژه از حیث توصیف اعمال سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، مسئولیت بین‌المللی سازمان‌ها، توالی قواعد مربوط به سازمان‌ها و... خواهد داشت. در این مقاله با اشاره به خلأها و ایرادات وارد بر هر کدام از این دو نگاه، استدلال شده که اتخاذ یک رویکرد دوبعدی در مورد ماهیت قواعد سازمان‌های بین‌المللی ضمن حفظ استقلال حقوقی سازمان‌ها، به جلوگیری از چندپارچگی حقوق بین‌الملل کمک خواهد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Legal Nature of the Rules of International Organizations: Internal or International

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Haddadi 1
  • Reza Esmkhani 2

1 Assistant Prof., Department of International and Public law, Farabi Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in International Law, Farabi Faculty, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Since the emergence of the international organizations, it was presumed two functions for these new entities: international organizations as independent actors and as vehicles for States. In light of these two functions, two points of view about legal nature of the law produced inside IOs are raised. According to the first point of view (constituent instruments as constitution) rules of international organizations just like rules of States, were considered part of the internal law of IOs and isolated from international law. According to the second point of view (constituent instruments as a contract) rules of organizations were merely part of international law. Each of these two views has totally different effects on areas of characterization of acts, international responsibility and sequence of rules of international organizations. In this article after enumerating gaps and insufficiencies of each of these two views, it is argued that adoption of a two-dimensional (internal and international) approach regarding nature of rules of international organizations, while protecting the legal autonomy of international organizations, will help to prevent fragmentation of international law.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Law
  • Internal law
  • Rules of International Organizations
  • one-dimensional nature
  • two-dimensional nature
1. فارسی
الف)کتاب‌ها
1. اسلون، جیمز؛ هرناندز، گلیدر (1396)، دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری و توسعۀ حقوق سازمانی سازمان ملل متحد، ترجمۀ مهدی حدادی، سیامک کریمی، تهران: خرسندی.
 
ب) مقالات
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2. انگلیسی
A) Books
3. Alvarez, Jose (2006), International Organizations as Law-makers, Oxford University Press.
4. Anzilotti, Dionisio (1929), Cours de droit international, Paris, Recueil Sirey.
5. Brölmann, Catherine (2007), The Institutional Veil in Public International Law: International Organisations and the Law of Treaties, Hart Publishing, Oxford.
6. Collins, Richard (2011), Non-State Actors in International Institutional Law, in d’Aspermont, Jean (ed.) Participants in the international Legal System: Multiple Perspectives on Non-State Actors in International Law,Routledge, Abingdon.
7. Klabbers, Jan (2009) An Introduction to International Institutional Law Cambridge University Press.
8. M. Virally, ‘La notion de fonction dans la théorie de l’organisation internationales’, in Mélanges offerts à Charles Rousseau: La Communauté internationale (Pedone Paris, 1974) pp. 277–300.
9. Pauwelyn, Joost (2003), Conflict of Norms in Public International Law: How WTO Law Relates to Other Rules of International Law, Cambridge University Press.
10. Petman, J, (2010), Deformalization of International Organisation’, in Klabbers & Wallendahl (eds.), Research Handbook on International Organizations Law: Between Functionalism and Constitutionalism, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
11. Sato, Tetsuo (1996), Evolving Constitutions of International Organizations, Kluwer Law Inter­national.
12. Schermers, Henry & Blokker, Niels (2003), International Institutional Law: Unity within Diversity, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
13. Seyersted, Finn (2008), Common Law of International Organizations, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden, Boston.
14. Mendelson, M, H, (1998), The Nicaragua Case andCustomary International Law’, in W.E. Butler (ed.), The Non-Use of Force in International Law, Dordrecht: Nijhoff.
15. White, Nigel (2006), The Law of International Organisations (2nd edn), Manchester: Manchester University Press.
 
B) Articles
16. Ahlborn, Christian, (2011), "The rules of international organizations and the law of international responsibility", International Organizations Law Review, Vol. 8, pp. 397-482.
17. Akehurst, Michael, (1987), "Nicaragua v. United States of America", Indian J Int’l L, Vol. 27, pp. 357-360.
18. Bederman, David, (1995-1996), "The Souls of International Organizations: Legal Personality and the Lighthouse at Cape Spartel", Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 36, pp. 275-277.
19. Brölmann, Catherine, (2015), "Member States and International Legal Responsibility: Developments of the Institutional Veil", International Organizations Law Review, vol. 12(2), pp. 358-381.
20. Charlesworth, Hillary, (1984-87), "Customary International Law and the Nicaragua Case", Australian Year Book of Int’l L, Vol. 11, pp. 1-31.
21. Donaghue, Stephen, (1995), "Normative Habits, Genuine Beliefs and Evolving Law: Nicaragua and the Theory of Customary International Law", Australian Year Book of Int’l L, Vol. 16. pp. 327- 344.
22. D'Aspremont, Jean, (2014), "The Law of International Organizations and the Art of Reconciliation", International Organizations Law Review, Vol. 11, pp. 428-453.
23. Fassbender, Bardo, (1998), "The United Nations Charter as Constitution of the International Community", Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, vol. 36, pp. 529-619.
24. Fidler, David, (2005), "From International Sanitary Conventions to Global Health Security: The New International Health Regulations", Chinese Journal of International Law, Vol. 4(2), pp. 325-392.
25. Gasbarri, Lorenzo, (2016), "Al-Dulimi and Competing Concepts of International Organizations", European Forum, Vol. 1(3), pp. 1117-1125.
26. Gasbarri, Lorenzo, (2017)," The Dual Legality of the Rules of International Organizations", International Organizations Law Review, Vol. 14(1), pp. 87-119.
27. Gasbarri, Lorenzo, (2017), "The International Responsibility of the European Union and the Legal Nature of the Rules of International Organizations", Jean Monnet Working Papers, The City Law School, City University of London, No. 04/2017.
28. Henkin, Louis, (1969), "International Organization and the Rule of Law",  Int’l Org, Vol. 23, p. 565.
29. Hilpold, Peter, (2009), "EU Law and UN Law in Conflict: The Kadi Case", Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, Volume 13(1), 141-181.
30. Jan Kuijper, Pieter, (1994), "The Law of GATT as a Special Field of International Law, Ignorance, Further Refinement or Self-Contained System of International Law?", Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 25, pp. 227-257.
31. Klabbers, Jan, (2015), "The Emergence of Functionalism in International Institutional Law: Colonial Inspirations: International Institutional Law", European Journal of International Law, Vol. 25(3), pp. 645-675.
32.  Klabbers, Jan, (2015), "The EJIL Foreword: The Transformation of International Organizations Law", European Journal of International Law Vol. 26(1), pp. 9-82.
33. Öberg, Marko, (2006), "The Legal Effects of Resolutions of the UN Security Council and General Assembly in the Jurisprudence of the ICJ", EJIL, Vol. 16(5), pp. 879-906.
34. Seyersted, Finn, (1963), "Objective International Personality of Intergovernmental Organisations: Do Their Capacities Really Depend upon Their Constitutions?", The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 58(4), p. 112.
 
C) Case Law
35. Accordance with International Law of Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, (2010), ICJ Advisory Opinion.
36. Effect of Awards of Compensation made by the United Nations Administrative Tribunal,(1954), Icj Rep. 47.
37. Legality of the Use or Threat of Nuclear Weapons, ICJ Rep.1996.
38. Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention Arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. US and UK), Provisional Measures, ICJ Reports 1992.
39. Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, ICJ Rep.1949.
40. Judgement of the Court (Grand Chamber) of 3 September 2008- Yassin Abdullah Kadi, Al Barakaat International Foundation v Council of the European Union and Commission of the European Communities.
 
D) UN Documents
41. Draft articles on the responsibility of international organizations, with commentaries, (2011)..
42. ILC Yearbook, (2001), vol. II (Part Two).
 ILC Yearbook (2003), Report fifty-fifth session, vol.II (Part Two)
43. ILC Yearbook (2005), Summary record of the 2843rd meeting, UN Doc. A/CN.4/SER.A/2005
UN Doc. A/CN.4/L.682, (2006).
- UN Doc. A/CN.4/553, (2005).
- UN Doc, A/64/10, (2009).
- Vienna Convention on the Representation of States in their Relations with International Organizations of a Universal Character, (1975), UN Doc. A/CONF. 67/16.