دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه حقوق، دانشکدۀ علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بجنورد، بجنورد، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه حقوق عمومی، دانشکدۀ حقوق، دانشگاه تهران، پردیس فارابی، قم، ایران

چکیده

استفاده از قرنطینه برای کنترل بیمار‌ی‌های همه‌گیر همیشه بحث‌برانگیز بوده است، زیرا چنین راهکاری چالش‌های سیاسی، اخلاقی، اقتصادی و حقوقی را مطرح می‌کند و مستلزم توازن دقیق بین منافع عمومی و حقوق فردی و بحث در خصوص گستره و مبانی دخالت دولت در حوزۀ بهداشت عمومی است. تعیین سنجه‌های دقیق به‌منظور کاربست این روش ضروری است. نظام‌های حقوقی کشورها در چارچوب قوانین اساسی و قوانین و مقررات عادی زمینۀ اعمال قرنطینه برای مقابله با شیوع بیماری‌های واگیردار را فراهم ساخته‌ است. در ایران هرچند قانونی خاص برای موضوع قرنطینه نداریم، ولی می‌توان از اصل 79 قانون اساسی برای مشروعیت‌سازی آن استفاده کرد. همچنین با توجه به ظهور بیماری‌های نوپدید وضع قانونی معین در این زمینه لازم می‌نماید؛ قانونی جامع که متضمن موارد اعمال قرنطینه، نحوۀ اجرای آن، مقامات مسئول، حدود و ثغور، ضمانت نقض و نحوۀ جبران آثار حاصل از آن باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Quarantine for the Control of Communicable Diseases with a Look at the Iranian Legal System

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Ameri 1
  • Seyed Ahmad Habibnezhad 2

1 Prof. Department of Law, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bojnord, Bojnord, Iran

2 Prof. Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, University of Tehran, Farabi Campus, Qom, Iran

چکیده [English]

The use of quarantine to control communicable diseases has always been controversial because such strategy raises political, moral, economic and legal challenges and requires a precise balance between public interest and individual rights and discussion on the scope and foundations of government involvement in the field of public health. It is necessary to determine precise measurements in order to apply this method. The legal systems of the countries within the framework of the constitutions and the ordinary laws and regulations have provided the quarantine for the prevention of the communicable diseases. Although we do not have a specific law on quarantine in Iran, the principle 79 of the Constitution can be used to legitimize it. Also, given the emergence of emerging diseases, there is a need for a specific legal framework, including a comprehensive quarantine law which contains regulation about how to enforce it, how it will be implemented, the authorities in charge, the extent of the quarantine, guarantee of breach, and how to recover the effects thereof.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • communicable Disease
  • Rights and Freedoms
  • Public health
  • Quarantine
  • Emergency situation
1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
1. ادارۀ کل امور فرهنگی و روابط عمومی مجلس شورای اسلامی (1369)، صورت مشروح مذاکرات مجلس بررسی نهایی قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران، ج 1، تهران.
2. موحد، محمدعلی (1381)، در هوای حق و عدالت، تهران: کارنامه.
3. همتی، پیمان؛ اکبری، حسین؛ مهبودی، محمدباقر؛ رضایی، فرشید؛ دادرس، محمدنصر (1396)، مقررات بهداشتی بین‌المللی 2005، تهران: تندیس.
 
ب) مقالات
4. عباسی، محمود؛ رضایی، راحله؛ دهقانی، غزاله (1393)، «مفهوم و جایگاه حق بر سلامت در نظام حقوقی ایران»، فصلنامۀ حقوق پزشکی، سال هشتم، ش 30، ص 199-183.
5. محبی، داود؛ کرمی، حامد (1395)، «ماهیت شناسی الگوهای پاسخ به وضعیت‌های اضطراری با تأکید بر قانون اساسی جمهوری اسلامی ایران»، فصلنامۀ آفاق امنیت، سال هشتم، ش 32، ص 98-67.
 
2. انگلیسی
A) Books
1. General Department of Cultural Affairs and Public Relations of the Islamic Consultative Assembly (1990). Detailed minutes of the parliamentary deliberations on the final review of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Volume I, Tehran (In Persian).
2. Gostin, L.; Cabrera, O.; Patterson, D; Magnusson, R and Nygren-Krug, H (2017), Advancing the Right to Health: The Vital Role of Law, Geneva. World Health Organization
3. Habibnezhad, Seyed Ahmad (2012), Principles of Restriction of Public Rights and Freedoms in Islamic Discourse, Collection of Articles on Strategic Thoughts on Freedom, Center for the Iranian-Islamic Model of Progress, Tehran (In Persian).
4. Hemmati, Peyman and Hossein Akbari, Mohammad Baqer Mahboudi, Farshid Rezaei, and Mohammad Nasr Dadras (2017), International Health Regulations 2005, Tehran, Tandis (In Persian).
5. Monaghan,s (2002), The State of Communicable Disease Law, London. The Nuffield Trust pub.
6. Movahed, Mohammad Ali (2002), In the Air of Truth and Justice, Tehran (In Persian).
7. National Advisory Committee on SARS and Public Health (2003), Learning from SARS: Renewal of public health in Canada , Ottawa. Health Canada publications.
8. Roffey,R (2016), Russia’s Emercom:Managing emergencies and political credibility, Sweden. FOI Pub.
 
B) Articles
9. Berger,S & Moreno, J (2010), "Public Trust, Public,Health, and Public Safety: A Progressive Response to Bioterrorism",Harvard Law and Policy Review,Vol. 4, pp. 295- 317.
10. Chen, R B.(2008), “Closing the Gaps in the U.S. and International Quarantine Systems: Legal Implications of the 2007 Tuberculosis Scare”, Houston Journal of International Law ,Vol. 31, No. 1 ,pp. 83-124.
11. Gostin , L (2000),”Public Health Law in a New Century, Part III: Public Health Regulation: A Systematic Evaluation”, Journal of the American Medical Association ,Vol. 283,No. 23, pp. 3118-3122.
12. Gostin, L (2003), “The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act: Public Health and Civil Liberties in a Time of Terrorism”, Health Matrix: The Journal of Law-Medicine ,Vol. 3 , issue 1, pp.3-32.
13. Gostin, L, Gravely,S, Shakman, S, Markel,H and Cetron,M (2004), “Quarantine: Voluntary or Not?” The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Vol. 32, issue 4, pp. 83-86.
14. Gostin,L & Berkman,B, (2007), “Pandemic Influenza: Ethics, Law and the Public’s Health”, Administrative Law Review,Vol. 59, No. 1, pp. 121-169.
15. Gray, A,(2015), “The Australian quarantine and biosecurity legislation: Constitutionality and critique”, Journal of Law and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp.788-810.
16. Hodge JG.(2006), “Law as a tool for improving the health of children and adolescents in schools”, Journal of School Health, Vol. 76, No. 9, pp. 442-445
17. Hoffman, Sh (2009), “Preparing for Disaster: Protecting the Most Vulnerable in Emergencies”, UC Davis Law Review, Vol. 42, pp1491- 1547
18. Institute of Medicine US (2004), Learning from SARS: Preparing for the Next Disease Outbreak -- Workshop Summary, Washington (DC). National Academies Press (US).
19. Kim, ch (2016), “Legal Issues in Quarantine and Isolation for Control of Emerging Infectious Diseases”, Journal of Preventive Medicine & Public Health , Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 1–17.
20. Manuell, M-E & Cukor, J(2011), “Mother Nature versus human nature: public compliance with evacuation and quarantine”, Disasters, Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 417-442.
21. Singapore”, American Journal of Infection Control, Vol. 33, Issue 5, pp. 252–257.
22. Page, EM (2006-2007),”Balancing Individual Rights and Public Health Safety during Quarantine: The U.S. and Canada“, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Vol. 38, Issue 3, pp.517-537.
23. Patro,B, Tripathy, J & Kashyap,R (2013),”Epidemic Diseases Act 1897, India: Whether Sufficient to Address the Current Challenges?”, Journal of Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Science , Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp 109- 111.
24. Ries, N (2005), “Quarantine and the Law: The 2003 SARS Experience in Canada (A New Disease Calls on Old Public Health Tools)”, Alberta Law Review, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 529-547.
25. Rothstein, M (2015),”From SARS to Ebola: Legal and Ethical Considerations for Modern Quarantine”, Indiana Health Law Review, Vol.12, No.1, pp. 227-280.
26. Rothstein, M & Talbott (2007), “Encouraging Compliance With Quarantine: A Proposal to Provide Job Security and Income Replacement”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 97, No. S1, pp 49-56.
27. Schoch-Spana,M (2000), “Implications of Pandemic Influenza for Bioterrorism Response", Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol. 31, Issue 6, pp. 1409–1413.
28. Sehdev, PS (2002), “The origin of quarantine”, Clinical infectious diseases, Vol. 35,No. 9, pp. 1071-1072.
29. Shuaib,F, Gunnala,R, Musa, E.O. , Mahoney, F.J. , Oguntimehin,O, Nguku, P.M. , Nyanti, N. Knight, S.B. , Gwarzo, N.S. , Idigbe, O. , Nasidi, A. , Vertefeuille, J.F. (2014), “Ebola virus disease outbreak – Nigeria, July–September 2014”, Morbidity and mortality weekly report, Vol. 63, No 39, pp. 867-872.
30. Smith,M, Bensimon,C, Perez,D, Sahni,S & Upshur.R(2012), “Restrictive Measures in an Influenza Pandemic: A Qualitative Study of Public Perspectives”, Canadian journal of public health, Vol. 103, No. 5, pp 348-352.
31. Tangwa,G, Abayomi,A, Ujewe,S, Munung,N (2019), Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Emerging Infectious Diseases in Africa: an Indigenous Response to Deadly Epidemics, Switzerland .Springer Nature.
32. Waterman,S, Escobedo,M, Wilson, T, Edelson,P, Bethel, J, Fishbein,D (2009), “A new paradigm for quarantine and public health activities at land borders: opportunities and challenges”, Public Health Reports,Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 203–211.
33. Abbasi, Mahmoud and Raheleh Rezaei and Ghazaleh Dehghani (2014), "The Concept and Position of the Right to Health in the Iranian Legal System", Quarterly Journal of Medical Law, Year 8, Issue 30, pp 183-199 (In Persian).
34. Ghorbannia, Nasser (2007), "Suspension of the implementation of human rights in emergency situations", Quarterly Journal of Jurisprudence and Law, No. 12, pp 37-62 (In Persian).
35. Habibnezhad, Seyed Ahmad (2016), "Conditions for Restricting Rights and Freedoms with Emphasis on Restriction in the Name of Public Order", Quarterly Journal of Comparative Law (Mofid Letter), No. 105,pp 53-78 (In Persian).
36. Habibnezhad, Seyed Ahmad and Zahra Saeed (2017), "The necessity of transition from obligation means to obligation to achieve a certain result in the interpretation of government obligations in the third principle of the Constitution", Islamic Law Quarterly, Volume 14, Number 53, pp 59-84 (In Persian).
37. Mohebbi, Davood and Hamed Karami (2016), "The Nature of Emergency Response Patterns with Emphasis on the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran", Afagh-e-amniyat Quarterly, Year 8, No. 32,pp 67-98 (In Persian).
 
C) WebSites
38. World Health Organization (2016), Guidance for managing ethical issues in infectious disease outbreaks,World Health Organization. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/250580