دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران، قم، ایران

چکیده

با وجود پیشرفت‌های حوزۀ پزشکی،‌ بیماری‌های واگیر کماکان تهدیدی جدی علیه سلامت مردمان‌اند. به‌دلیل مرزناشناسی عوامل بیماری‌زا، مبارزه با بیماری‌های واگیر از حوزه‌های قدیمی همکاری بین‌المللی میان دولت‌ها بوده است، با وجود این همچنان این پرسش مطرح است که نوع و عناصر دخیل در رابطۀ میان مبارزه با بیماری‌های واگیر و حقوق بشر به چه ترتیب است؟ در پاسخ باید گفت که رابطه‌ای دوگانه میان مبارزه با بیماری‌های واگیر و حقوق بشر وجود دارد: از سویی دولت‌ها در راستای تعهد خود به رعایت، محافظت و اجرای حق بر سلامت مکلف به اتخاذ اقدامات ضروری به‌منظور جلوگیری از شیوع و گسترش و نیز کنترل بیماری‌های واگیرند. از سوی دیگر، امنیتی شدن چنین مبارزه‌ای به‌دلیل پیدایش بیماری‌های نوپدید و تأثیرات جهانی شدن بر سبک زندگی مردم سبب شده است که گاه اقدامات دولت‌ها برای چنین مبارزه‌ای، خود موجبات نقض تعهدات حقوق بشری آنها را فراهم سازد. با وجود این نظام حقوق بین‌الملل، در عین عدم تمرکز امکان برقراری تعادل میان این دوسویه ظاهراً متعارض را فراهم کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Human Rights and Fighting Infectious Disease: Necessities and Challenges

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Ebrahimgol 1
  • Parisa Roshanfekr 2
  • Seyed Ahmad Tabatabaei Lotfi 1

1 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran( Faculty of Farabi), Qom, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, University of Tehran( Faculty of Farabi), Qom, Iran

چکیده [English]

Despite vast advances in the fields of science and medicine, numbers show that infectious disease is still a serious threat to global health. Since, microbes know no boundaries, fighting infectious disease has long been a subject of international cooperation between States. But the question remains that how fighting infectious disease can relate to human rights? There exists a twofold relationship: On one hand, States have responsibility to protect, respect and enforce the right to health, therefore they are obligated to take necessary actions to prevent and control infectious disease. On the other hand, securitization of this fight caused mainly by emerging and re-emerging infectious disease, globalization and its affects on people's life style has resulted in human rights breaches while fighting these diseases. Nevertheless, it is argued that international law is capable of striking a balance between these two apparent contradictory faces of the global fight against infectious disease.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Securitization
  • Infectious Disease
  • human rights
  • Right to Health
  • Emergency Situations
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