دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانش آموخته دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، پردیس البرز دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

بشریت سهم مشترکی در اکتشافات فضایی دارد؛ اسناد بنیادین حقوق فضا از این ادعا حمایت می‌کنند. با اینکه فناوری فضایی پیشرفت زیادی داشته، اما حقوق فضا در این زمینه با ابهاماتی همراه است و هزینۀ بالا و سود بالقوۀ اکتشافات فضایی این پرسش را مطرح می‌کند که آیا کشورهای توانمند فضایی، نتیجۀ اکتشافاتشان را با سایر کشورها تقسیم می‌کنند؟ نکتۀ مهم این است که کشورهای در حال توسعه، متعهدند که منفعت ناشی از اکتشافات فضایی را به توسعۀ اقتصاد اختصاص دهند، درحالی‌که کشورهای صنعتی میزان تعهدشان برای توسعۀ اقتصادی در مقایسه با کشورهای در حال توسعه کمتر است. بنابراین، این کشورها نسبت به برنامه‌های فضایی خود کنترل بیشتری دارند و برنامه‌هایشان از ارزش اقتصادی بیشتری برخوردار است. این مقاله استدلال می‌کند که کشورهای قدرتمند فضایی دربارۀ تقسیم منافع حاصل از اکتشافات فضایی، تعهدات قانونی مشخصی دارند که در برخی ابعاد ابهام دارد و کشورهای در حال توسعه برای رشد خود، به تقسیم عادلانۀ این منافع بسیار نیازمندند. نظام تقسیم منافع تنها در صورتی موفق می‌شود که به منافع کشورهای فضایی –اعم از توانا و ناتوان- کمک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Sharing the Interests of Outer Space Exploration and Its Effect on Developing Countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Momenirad 1
  • Seyedeh Sanaz Zabihi Shahri 2

1 Assistant Prof., Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. in international law, Alborz Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Humanity has a common share in space exploration. The fundamental documents of space law support this claim. Although spatial technology has progressed greatly, space law is ambiguous in this regard. High cost and potential benefits of space exploration raise the question of whether spatial mighty countries share their discoveries with other countries? The important point is that developing countries are committed to allocating the interests of space exploration for economic development, while industrialized countries are less committed to economic development than developing countries. So these countries have more control over their own space programs, and their programs have more economic value. This article argues that powerful space-based nations have certain legal obligations about sharing the interests of space exploration that are ambiguous in some respects. Developing countries need to fair share of these interests as high as possible. The system of sharing interests only succeeds if helps the interests of the space nations; both developed and non-developed countries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Exploration
  • Exploitation
  • share
  • Economic Development
  • Space law
  • Interest
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