دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار حقوق عمومی، گروه حقوق، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

کارل اشمیت به‌عنوان یکی از مهم‌ترین متفکران حقوقی قرن بیستم دارای اندیشة پیچیده و دشواری است. وی در حوزة حقوق عمومی هم دربارة مبانی این رشته و هم در خصوص مفاهیم آن سخنان متفاوتی گفته است. قانون اساسی به‌منزلة یکی از کلیدی‌ترین مفاهیم حقوق عمومی از مفاهیمی است که اشمیت در خصوص آن سخنانی مهم گفته است. او فهم رایج و مدرن از قانون اساسی به‌عنوان سند برتر و مکتوب را نمی‌پذیرفت و با تفکیک میان اساس و قانون اساسی تمرکز نظریة خود را بر روی مفهوم اساس گذاشت و از چهار نوع اساس مطلق، اساس نسبی، اساس پوزیتیو و اساس ایده‌آل سخن گفت. بیشترین مخالفت او با اساس نسبی یعنی همان برداشت رایج از قانون اساسی بود و آن را نوعی انحراف از مفهوم واقعی اساس می‌دانست. اساس در اندیشة او نسبت دقیقی با مفهوم قدرت مؤسس و مردم دارد و نقشی مهم در اتحاد مردم بازی می‌کند. در این مقاله کوشش شده است دیدگاه‌های اشمیت در این زمینه بررسی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Concept of Constitution in Carl Schmitt's Thought

نویسنده [English]

  • Fardin Moradkhani

Assistant Prof., Department of Law, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Carl Schmitt as one of the most important legal thinkers of the twentieth century has a complex and difficult thought. On public law, Schmidt has spoken differently about both its foundations and concepts. The Constitution as one of the key concepts of public law is one of those that Schmidt has spoken about. He did not accept the common and modern understanding of the Constitution as a superior and written document and by dividing the Constitution and the constitutional laws, he concentrated his theory on the concept of constitution and spoke of four types of absolute constitution, relative constitution, positive constitution, and ideal constitution. His most disagreed with the relative constitution, that is, the prevailing conception of the Constitution, which he regarded as a departure from the true meaning of the constitution. The constitution in his thought is precisely related to the concept of constituent power and the people and plays an important role in uniting people. This article attempts to explain this concept in Schmitt's thought.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Absolute Constitution
  • Relative Constitution
  • Positive Constitution
  • Ideal Constitution
  • constituent power
1. فارسی
الف) کتاب‌ها
1. مرادخانی، فردین (1398)، «بررسی مفهوم قانون اساسی: تکوین و تحول»، مندرج در مجموعه مقالات همایش اصول نانوشته قانون اساسی. قم: دارالعلم.
ب) مقالات
2. اشمیت، کارل (1397)، «مفهوم وضعی اساسی»، ترجمة سید ناصر سلطانی، فصلنامة سیاست‌نامه، ش 10، صص 198-212.
 
2. انگلیسی
A)Books
1. Bryce, Viscount James (1901), Studies in History and Jurisprudence, New York: Oxford University Press.
2. Corce, Mariano & Salvatore, Andereas (2013), the legal theory of Carl Schmitt. Routledge. routledge aglasshouse book
3. Coutinho , Lars pereira , Massimo Latorre- Steven smith(ed) (2015), judicial activism. can interdisciplinary approach to American and European experiencing,springer, press .
4. Dyzenhaus, David (1997b), Legality and Legitimacy: Carl Schmitt, Hans Kelsen and Hermann Heller in Weimar, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
5. Grimm, Dieter (2016), Constitutionalism (past, present, future), oxford university press.
6. Kahn, Paul (2005), putting liberalism in its place, Princeton university press
7. Kalyvas, Andreas (2008), Democracy and the politics of the extra ordinary Max Weber, Carl Schmitt and Hannah Arndt, Cambridge university press
8. Kelsen, Hans (2006), General Theory of Law and State, reprint of 1949 ed. New Brunswick, N.J.:Transaction Publishers.
9. Kenedey, Elln (2004), Constitutional failure. carl schmit in Weimar, London: duke university press.
10. Loughlin, martin (2013), “The concept of constituent power”, Critical Analysis of Law Workshop, University of Toronto.
11. McIlwain, Charles Howard (1947), Constitutionalism: ancient and modern, Amagi books are published by Liberty Fund, Inc
12. Meierhemner, Tens ;Oliver Simon.ed (2016 ), The oxford handbook of carl Schmitt, Oxford: Oxford University Press
13. Moradkhani. Fardin(2018)”Examining the concept of the constitution: creation and development”. Proceedings of the Conference on the Unwritten Principles of the Constitution. Qom: Dar Al-Alam Publications (In Persian).
14. Murkens, Jo eric khushal (2013), From Empire to Union: Conceptions of German Constitutional Law since 1871, Oxford university press.
15. Schmitt, Carl (2008), Constitutional Theory (ed. and trans. Seitzer, J.), Durham:248Duke University Press.
16. Schupmans , Benyamin (2015), Leviathan run aground: Carl Schmitt theory and militate democracy, THESIS PHD. Colombia university.
17. Stacey, Richard (2011), Constituent Power and Carl Schmitt's Theory of Constitution in Kenya's Constitution-Making Process. International Journal of Constitutional Law.
16. Vermeule, Adrian; Posner, eric (2011), The Executive Unbound: After the Madisonian Republic, New York: Oxford University Press.
17. Vinx. Lars ( 2015b), Carl schmit and problem of constitutional guardianship in The Contemporary Relevance of Carl Schmitt. In : Law, Politics, Theology Matilda Arvidsson, Leila Brännström, Panu Minkkinen, Chapter 2.
18. Vinx. Lars (2015a) ,Translation, introduction, and notes by The guardian of the constitution hans kelsea and carl schmitt of the limits of constitutional law, Cambridge university press.
 
B) Articles
19. Dyzenhaus, David (March 1997a),”Legal Theory in the Collapse of Weimar:Contemporary Lessons?” The American Political Science Review , Vol.91, No.1 , pp. 121-134.
20. Ries , Joel Colon (2012),” Carl Schmitt and constitution power in Latin American court: the case of Venezuela and Colombia” ,Victoria university of wellington research paper , Vol.2,No. 2, pp 365-388.
21. Rios, Joel Colon (2010), “The legitimacy of the juridical democracy and limitation of constitutional reform”, Osgoode Hall Law Journal, Vol. 48, pp 199-245.
22. Schmitt, Carl (2018). “The Concept of the positive constitution" translated by Seyed Nasser Soltani, quarterly of siyasatnameh. No10, pp198-212 (In Persian).
23. Seitzzer, Jeffry (2008),” introduction to Schmitt,” Carl .Constitutional Theory, Durham:248Duke University Press, pp 1-50.
24. Vinx, Lars ( 2013), “Carl Schmitt and the analogy between constitutional and international law”, globol caotitutinalsm- , Vol .21,issue 1, March, pp 91-124.