دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پردیس بین‌المللی کیش دانشگاه تهران ،کیش، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل پردیس بین‌المللی کیش دانشگاه تهران، کیش، ایران

چکیده

مفهوم قاعدۀ آمره از طریق حقوق معاهدات وارد حقوق بین‌الملل شده و امروزه به یکی از مفاهیم مهم و تأثیرگذار حقوق بین‌الملل تبدیل شده است. کارکرد اصلی و رسماً پذیرفته‌شدۀ قواعد آمره، بطلان هر معاهدۀ مغایر با یک قاعدۀ آمره است. برخی دولت‌ها برای نیل به مقاصد و گریز از محدودیت‌های ناشی از قواعد آمره از جمله به اعمال یکجانبه متوسل می‌شوند، چراکه با توجه به خلأ موجود در حقوق بین‌الملل، آن اعمال را بری از تأثیرپذیری از قواعد آمره تلقی می‌کنند. در سال‌های اخیر قواعد آمره با توسعة کارکردی در حوزه‌های دیگری به جز حقوق معاهدات مواجه بوده است. در این مقاله کارکرد قواعد آمره در حوزۀ اعمال یکجانبة دولت‌ها به‌منظور احراز این امر بررسی خواهد شد که آیا تعارض عمل یکجانبة دولت‌ها با یک قاعدۀ آمره برای آن عمل آثاری حقوقی در پی خواهد داشت و در صورت تأثیرگذاری قاعدة آمره بر این‌گونه اعمال، آیا کارکرد آن در حوزۀ اعمال یکجانبه مشابه کارکردش در حوزۀ حقوق معاهدات است یا کارکردی متفاوت دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Function of Jus Cogens in the Field of Unilateral Acts of States

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farideh Shaygan 1
  • Mojtaba Abdollahi 2

1 Assistant Prof., Department of Law, University of Tehran, Kish International Campus, Kish, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in International Law, University of Tehran, Kish International Campus, Kish, Iran

چکیده [English]

The concept of jus cogens entered into international law through the law of treaties and today has become one of the most important and effective rules of international law. The principal and recognized function of the jus cogens is to invalidate any treaty which is in conflict with it. Some States resort to unilateral acts to achieve their goals and to avoid the limitations imposed by the  jus cogens, because given the lacuna in international law, they consider those acts to be outside the influence of the jus cogens. In recent years, we have seen the functional development of the jus cogens in areas other than the law of treaties. This article, examines the function of jus cogens in the field of unilateral acts of States, to determine if unilateral acts of States, where they conflict with a peremptory norm, produce any legal consequences, and if the jus cogens has any impact on such acts, is its function in the field of unilateral acts similar to that of the law of treaties or does it has a different function.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Unilateral Declaration
  • reservation
  • Unilateral Acts of States
  • International Unilateral Sanctions
  • international law commission
  • Jus cogens
1. فارسی
الف)کتاب‌ها
1. شریفی طراز‌کوهی، حسین، (1375)،  قواعد آمره و نظم حقوق بین‌المللی، انتشارات دفتر مطالعات سیاسی و بین‌المللی وزارت امور خارجه.
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ب)مقالات
3. جاوید، احسان، (1393)، "مشروعیت اعمال تحریم‌های یک‌جانبه اقتصادی در حقوق بین‌الملل، ضامن اجرای حقوق بین‌الملل یا ابزار سیاست ملی؟"، مجله تحقیقات حقوق خصوصی و کیفری، دوره 10، شماره 22. صص. 105-148.
4. حدادی، مهدی، کرمی، سیامک، (1397)، "اعمال یک‌جانبه دولت‌ها به‌عنوان منبع تعهد بین‌المللی در حقوق بین‌الملل"، فصلنامه تحقیقات حقوقی، شماره 81. صص. 289-313.
5. زمانی، سید‌قاسم، (1377)، "جایگاه قاعده آمره در میان منابع حقوق بین‌الملل"، مجله حقوقی، شماره 22. صص. 299-324.
 
ج) پایان‌نامه
6. غریب‌آبادی، کاظم، (1396)، تحریم‌های یک‌جانبه و حقوق بین‌الملل، رساله دکتری پردیس خودگردان دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
 
2. انگلیسی
A)Books
1. Costelloe, Daniel (2017), Legal Consequences of Peremptory Norms in International Law, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2. Kohen , Marcelo G (2006), Secession: International Law Perspectives, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
3. Lepard, Brian (2010), Customary International law: A New Theory with Practical Application, Cambridge, ASIL Studies in International Legal Theory.
4. Marossi. Ali Z., Bassett, Marisa R (Eds.) (2015), Economic Sanctions under International Law, The Netherlands, asser press.
5. Quoc Dinh, Nguyen, Patrick Dailler and Alain Pellet (2003), Droit international publiques, translated by Hassan Habibi, Tehran: Etelaat, Vol.1 (In Persian).
6. Saganek, Przemyslaw (2015), Unilateral Acts of States in Public International Law, Leiden&Boston, Brill Nijhoff.
7. Sharifi Tarazkohi, Hosein (1996), Jus Cogens and International Legal Order, Publications of the Office of Political and International Studies of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (In Persian).
8. Vos, Jan Anne (2013), The Function of Public International Law, The Netherlands: Springer.
 
B) Articles
9. Brooks, Stephan & Wohlforth, William (2005), "International Relations Theory and the case Against Universalism", Perspectives on Policies,Dartmouth College. vol. 3, No. 3. pp. 509-524.
10. Cassese, Antonio (2012), "For an Enhanced Role of Jus Cogens" in Realizing Uropia: The Future of International Law, Oxford, Oxford Univesity Press. pp. 158-171.
11. Dupuy, Piere Marie (2000), "The Place and Role of Multilateralism in Contemporary International Law", European Journal of International Law, Vol. II, No. 1. pp. 19-29.
12. Focarelli, Carlo (2008), "Promotional Jus Cogens: A Critical Appraisal of Jus Cogens Legal Effects", Nordic Journal of International Law, Vol. 77, pp. 429-459.
13. Gaja, Giorgia (1981),"Jus Cogens Beyond the Vienna Convention", Hague Academy of International Law. pp. 275-316.
14. Haddadi, mahdi & Karimi, Siamak (2018), “Unilateral Acts of States as a Source of International Obligation in International Law”, Legal Research Quarterly, Vol. 21, No. 81, pp. 289-313 (In Persian).
15. Javid, Ehsan (2014), “Legitimacy of Enforcement of Unilateral Economic Sanctions in International Law: Guarntor of the Implementation of International Law of National Policy Means?”, Journal of Law and Politics, Vol. 10, No. 22, pp. 105-148 (In Persian).
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17. Menshawy, Ibrahim Sief Abdel Hameed (2019), "Unilateral Acts and Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) in the International Law Commission’s Work", Review of Economics and Political Science , Vol. 4, No. pp. 182-196.
18. Orakhelashvili, Alexander (2005), "The Impact of Peremptory Norms on the Interpretation and Application of United Nations Security Council Resolutions", The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, No.1. pp. 59-88.
19. Reisman, W. Michael (2000), "Unilateral Action and the Transformation of the World Constitutive Process: The Special Problems of humanitarian Intervention", The European Journal of International Law, Vol. II, No.1. pp. 3-18.
20. Shelton, Dinah (2006), "Normative Hierarchy In International Law", American Journal of International Law, Vol. 100, No. 2. pp. 291-323.
21. Stephan.Poul B. (2011), "The Political Economy of Jus Cogens", Vanderbilt Journal Of Transnational Law, Vol 44, pp. 1073-1104.
22. Tomuschat, Christian (2015), "The Security Council and Jus Cogens" in: Enzo Cannizzaro, The Present And Future of Jus Cogens, Sapienza Universita Editrice, pp. 7-98.
23. Zamani, Seyyed Ghasem (1998), “The Status of Peremptory Norm among the Sources of International Law”, International Law Review, Vol. 16, No. 22, pp. 299-234 (In Persian).
 
C) International Ducuments and decisions
24. Report of the International Law Commission on the work of its forty-eighth session, UN Doc. A/51/10, 1996.
25. International Law Commission, First Report on Jus Cogense by Dire Tladi, Special Rapporteur, UN Doc. A/CN.4/693, 8 March 2016.
26. International Law Commission, Third Report on Peremptory Norms of General International Law (Jus Cogens) by Dire Tladi, Special Rapporteur, UN Doc. A/CN.4/714, 12 February 2018.
27. International Law Commission, First Report on Unilateral Acts of States, by Mr. Víctor Rodríguez Cedeño, Special Rapporteur, UN Doc. A/CN.4/486. 1998.
28. International Law Commission, Second Report on Unilateral Acts of States, by Mr. Víctor Rodríguez Cedeño, Special Rapporteur, UN Doc. A/CN.4/500,1999.
29. International Law Commission,Third Report on Unilateral Acts of States, by Mr. Victor Rodriguez Cedeno, Special Rapporteur, UN Doc. A/CN.4/505, 2000.
30. International Law Commission,Fifth Report on Unilateral Acts of States, by Mr. Victor Rodriguez Cedeno, Special Rapporteur UN Doc. A/CN.4/525, 2002.
31. International Law Commission, Ninth Report on Unilateral Acts of States, by Mr. Victor Rodriguez Cedeno, Special Rapporteur, UN Doc. A/CN.4/569,2006.
32. International Law Commission, Tenth Report on Reservations to Treaties, by Alain Pellet, Special Rapporteur, 2005, UN Doc. A/CN.4/558, 2005.
33. International Law Commission, Guiding Principles Applicable to Unilateral Acts of State Capable of Creating Legal Obligations, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 2006, Vol. II, Part Two, UN Doc. A/61/10.
34. International Law Commission, Guide to Practice on Reservations to Treaties, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 2011, Vol. II, Part Two, UN Doc. A/66/10.
35. Case Concerning Legal Status of Eastern Greenland, PCIJ, (Series AB), Judgment of 1933.
36. Case Concerning the Arbitral Award Made By The King Of Spain on 23 December 1906 (Honduras v. Nicaragua), ICJ, Reports 1960.
37. Cases Concerning North Sea Continental Shelf, (Federal Republic of Germanyi/Denmark and the Netherlands), ICJ, Reports 1969.
38. Case Concerning Nuclear test (Australia v. France), ICJ, Reports 1974.
39. Case Concerning The Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso/Republic of Mali), ICJ Reports 1986.
40. Case Concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), ICJ, Reports 1995.
41. Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (DRC v. Rwanda), Jurisdiction of the Court and Admissibility of the Application, ICJ, Reports 2006.
42. Case Concerning Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion, ICJ, Reports 2010.
43. Separate Opinion of Judge Cancado Trindade attached to the Case Conserning Legal Consequences of the Separation of the Chagos Archipelago From Mauritius in 1965, ICJ, Reports 2019.
 
D) Thesis
44. Gharib Abadi, Kazem (2016), “Unilateral Sanctions and International Law, Ph.D Thesis, Allameh Tabatabai University Campus (In Persian).