دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه مطالعات منطقه‌ای، دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

ساختار نظام فدرال آلمان براساس قانون اساسی، در چهار سطح اتحادیة اروپا، فدرال، لندرها و حکومت‌های محلی شامل نواحی، شهرستان‌ها و شهرها تنظیم‌ شده است. توزیع صلاحیت‌ها و اختیارات بین این سطوح کار پیچیده‌ای است که از یک ‌سو ریشه در سنت‌های تاریخی آلمان دارد و از سوی دیگر به جنبه‌های کارکردی موضوع مرتبط است. پرسش اصلی این مقاله این است که ریشه‌های فدرالیسم در جمهوری فدرال آلمان چیست و صلاحیت‌ها و اختیارات حاکمیتی دولت آلمان چگونه بین لایه‌های مختلف حکومت تقسیم‌ شده و روند تحول آن چگونه بوده است؟ مقاله بر مبنای این فرضیه به بررسی موضوع پرداخته که شکل‌گیری جمهوری فدرال آلمان در دوران بعد از جنگ جهانی دوم ریشه در سنت‌های تاریخی آلمان دارد و در پی ترکیب خودگردانی ایالت‌های آلمان با حکومت مشترک بوده که به‌تدریج به سمت برابری اختیارات دو سطح فدرال و لندرها حرکت کرده است. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهد، فدرالیسم در جمهوری فدرال آلمان از زمان تأسیس در پرتو تحولات عینی و در چارچوب اصلاحات متعدد قانون اساسی به ‌مرور از فدرالیسم سنتی فاصله گرفته و به سمت نوعی فدرالیسم تمرکزگرای کارکردی حرکت کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The roots, structure and evolution of federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany

نویسنده [English]

  • Ali Sabbaghian

Assistant Prof.,Department of Regional Studies, Faculty of Law and Political Science,University of Tehran, Tehran,Iran

چکیده [English]

The structure of the German federal system is constitutionally regulated at the four levels of the European Union: federal, land, and local government, including districts, cities and towns. The distribution of competencies and powers between these levels of government is complex, rooted in the German historical tradition on the one hand, and on the functional aspects of the subject on the other. The main question of this article is what are the roots of federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany and how are the competencies and powers of the German government divided between the different layers of government and how has it evolved? Based on this hypothesis, the article examines that the formation of the Federal Republic of Germany in the post-World War II period is rooted in German historical traditions and seeks to combine the self-government of the German states with a joint government that gradually leads to equal equality of powers of federal level and the landers. The findings of the article show that federalism in the Federal Republic of Germany, since its establishment in the light of changing circumstances and in the framework of various constitutional amendments has gradually moved away from traditional federalism towards a kind of functional centralism federalism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Basic Law
  • federalism
  • Federal Republic of Germany
  • Lander
  • Local government
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