دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه حقوق عمومی، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

شفافیت از اصول حقوقی و از بنیان‌های حکومت‌داری مطلوب است. شورای امنیت نیز به‌واسطة اینکه امروزه جایگاهی والا در نظام بین‌المللی کسب کرده است، شایسته است شفافیت را در میان فعالیت‌های خود مورد توجه قرار دهد. زمینه‌های حقوقی شفافیت در انجام فعالیت‌های شورا از لحاظ نظری فراهم هستند و به این ترتیب شورا متعهد به رعایت آن در میان فعالیت‌های خود است. اما از آنجا که سازوکار منسجمی برای نظارت بر فعالیت‌های شورای امنیت وجود ندارد، انتظار عملکردی شفافیت در میان فعالیت‌های شورا، امری دشوار است و شورای امنیت نیز داوطلبانه به مبنای تصمیمات و فعالیت‌های خود را علنی نمی‌کند. بنابراین باید از راهکارهای دیگری در این زمینه بهره گرفت. چنین راهکارهایی از لحاظ قانونی و منطق حقوقی در دسترس‌اند که در مقالة حاضر به این مسائل پرداخته شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Transparency and Its Efficiencies’ Among Security Council’s Decisions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Momenirad 1
  • Yoones Hajiazizi 2

1 Assistant Professor, Public Law Department, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran

2 Ph.D. student in international law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Transparency is one of the Law Principals and Establish the Basis of a Good Governess. Today the Security Council Obtained the Place of a Universal Governess, Because Almost All of the World’s States Are the Members of the United Nations and UN Now Operate the Issues Over of State’s Relationship. The Backgrounds of Transparency Are provided theoretically and therefore the Security Council is obliged to Respect this Notion in Its Actions. But Because of the Lack of a Coherent Supervisory Mechanism for Investigate of Security Council Activities, the Respect to Legal Obligations by Security Council in Itself is a Complicated Issue and the SC Don’t Transparent Its Activates Voluntarily. So We Should Benefit the Other Solutions to Transparent the SC Activates that These Solutions Are Accessible Lowly Which Are Investigated in this Article.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Transparency
  • United Nations
  • Security Council
  • Decisions and Activates of SC
  • Legal Capacities of Transparency
  1. A) Books
  2. Farrall, Jeremy (2009), Sanctions, Accountability & Governess in Globalized World, Cambridge University Press.
  3. Hovell, Devika (2009), The Deliberative Deficit: Transparency, Access to Information and UN Sanction, London, CUP Cambridge.
  4. Matam Farral, Jeremy (2007), United Nations and the Rule of Law, London, Cambridge University Press.
  5. Sievers, Loraine & Daws, Sam (2014), The Procedure of the UN Security Council, London, Oxford University Press, 4th edition
  6. Tzanakopoulos, Antonios (2011), Disobeying The Security Council, London, Oxford University Press, First Publish.

 

B)Articles

  1. Bianchi, Andrea & Peters, Anne (2014), “Turning Mirrors into Windows? Reflections on Transparency in International Law”, the Journal of Investment & Trade, No. 15.
  2. Blokker, Niels (2004), “Internatinal Orgaanizations & Their Members”, International Orgnizations Law Review 1: 139 - 161
  3. C. Wood, Michael (1996), “Security Council Working Methods and Procedure: Recent Developments”, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Cambridge University Press, No. 45.
  4. I. Hernandez, Gleider (2014), “Turning Mirrors into Windows? Reflections on Transparency in International Law”, the Journal of World Investment & Trade, No. 15.
  5. Josef Blanke, Herman & Perlingero, Ricardo, (2018), “The Right of Access to Public Information”, Springer- Verlag GmbH, Berlin.
  6. Kokott, Julian & Sobotta, Christoph (2012), “The Kadi Case – Constitutional Core Values and International Law – Finding the Balance?”, The European Journal of International Law (EJIL), Vol. 23, No. 4.
  7. Moeckli, Daniel (2017), “A Duty to Give Reasons in the Security Council”, International Organizations Law Review, No. 14.
  8. Talmon, Stefan (2003), “The Statements by the President of the Security Council”, Chinese Journal of International Law, No. 419
  9. Therese, O’ Donnell (2007), “Naming and Shaming: The Sorry Tale of Resolution 1530 (2004)”, The European Journal of International Law (EJIL), Vol. 17, No. 5.
  10. Whittle, Devon (2015), “The Limits of Legality and the United Nations Security Council: Applying the Extra - Legal Measures Model to Chapter VII Action”, EJIL, Vol. 26, No.3.

 

  1. C) Documents
  2. GA/Res/60/1, Oct. 24, 2005
  3. GA/Res. 65/32, Jan. 10, 2011
  4. GA/66/L.42/Rev.1, 2012
  5. SC/ Res. 1904, Dec. 17, 2009 and its Annex II
  6. SC/Res. 1530, March. 11. 2004
  7. SC/Res. 507, Jul. 26, 2010
  8. SC/2083, Dec. 17, 2012
  9. SC/Res. 515, Aug. 28, 2013
  10. SC/Res. 268, Apr. 14, 2014
  11. SC/PV. 6870, Nov. 26, 2012
  12. UN Doc S/96/Rev. 7, 1982, rule. 48
  13. UN Doc A/49/667 (1994)
  14. UN Doc A/60/L.1 (2005)
  15. UN Doc A/60/L. 49 (2006)
  16. UN Doc A/60/PV. 95 – 96 (2006)
  17. General Comment No. 34, Geneva, 11 – 29 July 2011
  18. OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference), Res No. 2/7 – EX
  19. OAU (Organization of African Union), Decision AHG/Dec. 127 (XXXIV), 10 June 1998
  20. International Law Association (ILA), Report of Seventy – First Conference, Berlin, 2004

 

  1. D) Judgments
  2. Lockerbie Case, [1998] ICJ Rep. 80, (diss. Op. Jennings)
  3. Conditions of Admission of a State to the United Nations (Article 4), ICJ, 28 May 1948, Dissenting Opinion by Mc Nair and Winiarski, available at: https://www.icj-cij.org/files/case-related/3/003-19480528-ADV-01-03-EN.pdf
  4. Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa), ICJ, Reps. 17,
  5. Namibia (Advisory Opinion), ICJ Rep. 16, 22, (1971)
  6. Certain Expenses of the Security Council, Advisory Opinion, July 20, 1962, ICJ Rep. 151
  7. Abdelrazik v. Minister of Foreign Affairs [2009] FC 580
  8. Case C – 402/05 P and C – 415/05, P. Kadi and Al Barakat International Foundation V. Council and Commission [2008] ECR I – 6351

 

  1. E) Sites
  2. https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6 E4FF96FF9%7D/special_research_report__working_methods _2014.pdf
  3. https://www.un.org/press/en/2018/ga12091.doc.htm
  4. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2088858
  5. http://www.globalpolicy.org/
  6. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1300969/files/UNIO-Volume-13-E-F.pdf
  7. https://www.eda.admin.ch/dam/mission-new-york/en/speeches-to-the-un/ 2018 0206-new-york-statement-Accountability-Coherence-Transparency_EN.pdf