دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه حقوق عمومی، دانشکدة معارف اسلامی و حقوق، دانشگاه امام صادق(ع)، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه حقوق عمومی، دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تحریم‌های یکجانبة ایالات متحده علیه ایران، سبب کاهش دسترسی به داروها و تجهیزات پزشکی در طول بیماری فراگیر کرونا (کووید19) و ایجاد محدودیت در همکاری بین‌المللی در مقابله با بیماری مذکور شده است. در این مقاله تعهدات بین‌المللی دولت‌ها در خصوص همکاری بین‌المللی در زمان بیماری‌های فراگیر بررسی و سپس دامنة شمول تحریم‌ها بر کمک‌های بشردوستانه مانند دارو و تجهیزات پزشکی نیز تحلیل شد. در نهایت مسئولیت احتمالی دولت‌های ثالث در صورت عدم همکاری با دولت ایران و در این چارچوب امکان استناد این کشورها به عوامل رافع مسئولیت بررسی شد. از رهگذر بررسی موارد مذکور مشخص شد تحریم‌های یکجانبة ایالات متحده، به‌ویژه موارد ناظر بر محدودیت تجارت دارو، تجهیزات پزشکی و کمک‌های بشردوستانه مغایر با حقوق بین‌الملل است و نظر به این مغایرت، توجیه عدم همکاری در تأمین دارو و تجهیزات پزشکی توسط کشورهای ثالث غیرقابل قبول است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of extra-territorial U.S.A sanctions on the obligation of cooperation for providing medicines and medical equipment at the time of pandemics (COVID19)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Tavakol Habibzadeh 1
  • Mehdi Piri 2
  • Mostafa Yektafar 3

1 Associate Prof, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Islamic Studies and Law, University of Imam Sadiq, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Prof, Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 MA.student in International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran. Iran

چکیده [English]

U.S unilateral sanctions against Iran, have reduced access to medicines and equipment during the COVID-19 pandemic and its detrimental outcomes in Iran. Such difficult health conditions require the international community to assist the affected communities such as Iran to be able to stand against such unilateral sanctions. This article aims to study the legality of unilateral sanction during COVID-19 pandemic and its impacts on states international obligations to cooperate during such a pandemic. To this end, the international obligation of states at the time of the outbreak of pandemics in order to control the disease were first examined. Then, the nature and legality of the U.S unilateral sanctions against Iran and its coverage in humanitarian aids such as medicine and medical equipment were examined. In doing so, efforts were made to review international documents and some relevant I.C.J cases. Furthermore, by looking at the U.S sanctions laws it was been concluded that U.S unilateral sanctions is contrary to the rules of international law, in particular those which relate to restriction of trade on medical equipment. And also there is no legal basis to comply with these sanctions and non-cooperation in the provision of medical equipment by third states.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • The U.S.A Iran
  • Unilateral sanctions
  • Obligations of States
  • COVID19
  • Medicine
  • Third states
  1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

  1. کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل سازمان ملل متحد (1396)، مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت (متن و شرح مواد کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل)، ترجمة علیرضا ابراهیم گل، تهران: مؤسسة مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.

 

ب) مقالات

  1. 2. آل کجباف، حسین (1394)، «مفهوم و جایگاه حق بر سلامت در اسناد بین‌المللی حقوق بشر»، فصلنامة حقوق پزشکی، ش 24، ص 170 -140.
  2. دلخوش، علیرضا (1396)، «برجام و پسابرجام از دیدگاه حقوق بین‌الملل»، فصلنامة سیاست خارجی، ش 1، ص 73-51.
  3. رضوی، سید محمدحسن؛ زین‌الدینی، فاطمه (1397)، «اثر بازگشت تحریم‌های ثانویه آمریکا بر صنعت نفت و گاز ایران: فرصت‌ها و تهدیدها»، مطالعات حقوق انرژی، ش 1، ص 60-37.
  4. -------------------------------- (1398)، «بررسی حقوقی تطابق اقدامات متقابل اقتصادی با موازین حقوق بشر: دسترسی به غذا و دارو»، فصلنامة حقوق بشر، ش 1، ص 17-1.
  5. زارعی، سحر؛ پورهاشمی سید عباس؛ خلعتبری، یلدا (1392)، «بررسی جایگاه اصل همکاری در حقوق بین‌الملل محیط زیست»، فصلنامة پژوهش حقوق عمومی، ش 39، ص 90-61.

ج)پایان‌نامه‌ها

  1. جاوید، احسان (1389)، حق بر سلامتی در نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر با تأکید بر عملکرد شرکت‌های فراملی داروساز، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی.
  2. برادران رحمانی، محمد (1395)، جایگاه تحریم در معاذیر رافع مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت، پایان‌نامة کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه قم.

 

  1. انگلیسی
  2. A) Books
  3. United Nations Commission on International Law (2017), International Responsibility of the state (Text and Description of the Articles of the International Law Commission, translated by Alireza Ebrahim Gol, Tehran: Institute of Legal Studies and Research (In Persian).

 

  1. B) Articles
  2. Al-Kajbaf, Hussein (2015), "The Concept and Position of the Right to Health in International Human Rights Documents", Medical Law Quarterly, No. 24, pp. 140-170 (In Persian).
  3. Couzigou, Irene (2016), "The United Nation Security Council Sanctions and International Human Rights", Vienna Journal on International Constitutional Law/ICL Journal, Vol.10, pp.277-311.
  4. Crawford, James (1999). "Revising the Draft Articles on State Responsibility",European Journal of International Law,Vol.10,pp.435-460
  5. Delkhosh, Alireza (2017), "JCPOA and Post-JCPOA from the Perspective of International Law", Foreign Policy Quarterly, No. 1, pp. 51-73 (In Persian).
  6. Jazairy, Idriss (2019), "Unilateral Economic Sanctions, International Law, and Human Rights", Ethics & International Affairs Journal, Vol. 33, pp.291-302.
  7. Jerg, Gutmann; Matthias, Neuenkirch; Florian, Neumeier and Armin, Steinbach (2018), " Economic sanctions and human rights: Quantifying the legal proportionality principle", Universität Trier Research Papers in Economics ,pp.1-25.
  8. Kline,.M.Jennifer (2011), "When Comprehensive Falls Short: The Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability and Divestment Act of 2010",George Mason Journal of International Commercial Law,Vol.3,pp.219-iv p.
  9. Lawrence, Gostin & Robert Archer (2007), "The Duty of States to Assist Other States in Need: Ethics, Human Rights, and International Law", Journal of Law Medicine and Ethics, Vol.35, pp.526-533.
  10. Razavi Seyyed Mohammad Hassan and Fatemeh Zein al-Dini (2019), " Legal Review of Conformity of Economic Measures with Human Rights Standards: Access to Food and Drugs", Human Rights Quarterly, No. 1, pp. 1-17 (In Persian).
  11. Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Hassan and Fatemeh Zein Al-Dini (2018), "The Effect of the Return of US Secondary Sanctions on Iran's Oil and Gas Industry: Opportunities and Threats", Energy Law Studies, No. 1, pp. 37-60 (In Persian).
  12. Rolland E, Sonia (2007), " Developing Country Coalitions at the WTO: In Search of Legal Support", Harvard International Law Journal, Vol.48, pp.483-552.
  13. Skogly, Sigrun (2007), " Right to Adequate Food: National Implementation and Extraterritorial Obligation", Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law , Vol.11, pp.339-358.
  14. Zarei, Sahar; Seyed Abbaspour; Hashemi, Khalatbari, Yalda (2013), "Study of the position of the principle of cooperation in international environmental law", Quarterly Journal of Public Law Research, No. 39, pp. 61-90 (In Persian).

 

  1. C) Theses
  2. Javid, Ehsan (2010), The Right to Health in the International Human Rights System with Emphasis on the Performance of Transnational Pharmaceutical Companies, M.Sc. Thesis, Allameh Tabatabaei University (In Persian).
  3. Rahmani Brothers, Mohammad (2016), The Position of Sanctions in the Exemption from International State Responsibility ,M.Sc. Thesis, Qom University (In Persian).

 

  1. D) Documents and cases
  2. UNGA Re.74/270.Global Solidarity to Fight the Coronavirus Disease 2019.2 April 2020.at https://www.undocs.org/en/A/RES/74/270
  3. UNGA Re.74/274.International Cooperation to Ensure Global Access to Medicines, Vaccines and Medical Equipment to Face Covid-19,2 April 2020.at https://undocs.org/en/A/RES/74/274
  4. UNSC Re.2177.Peace and Security in Africa.18 September 2014.at https://undocs.org/en/S /RES/2177
  5. UNSC Re: S/RES/2397(2017), Non-Proliferation 22 December 2017
  6. U.N. Economic and Social Council, General Comment14, The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health,U.N. Doc. E/C.12/2000/
  7. HRC Resolution, A/HRS/RES/27/21,3 October 2014, available at:www.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G14/179/07
  8. HRW Report,( Maximum Pressure) US Economic Sanctions Harm Iranian Right to Health(2019),available at: https://www.hrw.org
  9. Federal Register/Vol.85. No.9/Tuesday, January 14,2020/Presidential Documents. available at:www.treasury.gov
  10. Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities In and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America); Merits, International Court of Justice (ICJ), 27 June 1986, para.194; International Court of Justice (1996), Advisory Opinion, Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, ICJ Rep. 226, para 78
  11. Case Concerning the Gabcikovo- Nagymaros Project (Hungary v.Slovakia),International Court of Justice(ICJ), September 1997,para.135
  12. Arzte fur das Leben v. Austria ,E.C.H.R, Series A,No.139,(1988)
  13. U.S Department of the Treasury, Financial channels to Facilitate Humanitarian Trade with Iran and Related Due Diligence and Reporting,25 October 2019. Available.at:.https://www.trasury.gov/resourcecenter/sanctions/programs/pages/iran.asx
  14. Secretary Michael R. Pompeo Remarks to the Press, March 31.2020. available at:https://www.state.gov/secretary-michel-r-pompeo-remarks-to-the-press-7/
  15. OFAC Clarifying Guidance, Humanitarian Assistance and Related Exports to the Iranian People, February 2013
  16. General Comment No.22(2016)on the right to sexual and reproductive health(article12 of the international covenant on economic, social and cultural rights. available at: https://tbinternrt.orchr.org
  17. Declaration on the Right to Development
  18. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
  19. World Health Organization Statute
  20. International Health Regulations(IHR)52
  21. UNILC, Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters 2016, at https://www.legal.un.org
  22. Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action 2015 54
  23. Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, 2001

 

  1. C) Sites
  2. https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/sanctions/pages/eolinks
  3. http://www.treasury.gov/press-center/press-release/Ducuments/Iran311Finding.pdf
  4. https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill
  5. https://www.cfatf-gafic.org/document/fatf-40r/376-fatf-recommendation-10-customers-due-diligence
  6. https://www.europarl.europea.eu