دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار، گروه حقوق بشر، دانشکدة حقوق، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

مدیریت تعارض منافع یکی از روش­های پیشگیری از فساد، افزایش شفافیت، کارامدی، پاسخگویی و اعتماد عمومی به دولت است. تعارض بین منافع شخصی و منافع عمومی، امری است که عموم کارگزاران دولتی با آن مواجه می‌شوند؛ ازاین‌رو، باید به‌درستی مدیریت شود، وگرنه می‌تواند زمینه‌ساز فساد باشد. کشورهای مختلف، با اتخاذ تدابیر گوناگون، برای تحقق این هدف تلاش کرده‌اند. در نظام حقوقی ایران نیز احکام پراکنده‌ای در این باره وجود دارد، اما این تأسیس حقوقی، به‌طور مستقل شناسایی نشده است. ازاین‌رو، پرسش اصلی پژوهش آن است که عناصر سازندة تعارض منافع در بخش عمومی چیست و وضعیت‌های تعارض منافع چگونه باید مدیریت شود؟ در مقام پاسخ به این پرسش، داشتن مسئولیت عمومی، وجود نفع شخصی برای کارگزار عمومی و تأثیر منفی آن بر خدمات عمومی به‌عنوان عناصر تحقق تعارض منافع شناسایی شدند؛ چگونگی مدیریت آنها در چهار حوزة مهمی که بیشترین آسیب‌پذیری را در برابر تعارض منافع دارند، مطالعه و راهکارهایی برای رفع خلأها یا اصلاح قوانین و مقررات موجود ارائه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Management of conflict of interests in public sector

نویسنده [English]

  • Bagher Ansari

Associate Prof., Department of Human Rights, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Management of conflict of interests is a means for preventing corruption and increasing public transparency, efficiency, accountability and trust. Every public agent /employer may face conflict of private and public interest, and hence, conflict of interests is not equal with corruption. These situations must be transparent and managed correctly. Many countries have laws on the management of conflict of interests but there is no special law on this matter in Iranian legal system; some general and traditional laws have, by way of combating corruption, explicit or implicit references to this concept. Recently, there is political will for management of conflict of interests situations and a Draft-bill by The Government is prepared, and, some general laws such as Code of Commerce are amended. These legal initiatives seems to be less based on rasions d etre of management of conflict of interests and its techniques and methods. Therefore, this article intends, based on comparative study, to firstly conceptualize the concept of conflict of interests and then explains theoretical foundations of it , and, finally, main areas of conflict of interests and their methods of management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conflict of interests
  • corruption
  • transparency
  • additional employment
  1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

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ب) مقالات

  1. پارسا، مجتبی؛ لاریجانی، باقر (1388)، «سهم خواری از نظر مفهوم، تاریخچه و کدهای اخلاقی»، ویژه‌نامة مجلة اخلاق و تاریخ پزشکی، زمستان، دوره سوم، شماره، صص 21-28.

 

ج) گزارش

  1. مروری بر ادبیات جهانی پدیدة «درب چرخان» (جابه‌جایی اشخاص بین بخش خصوصی و عمومی) (آذر 1395)، انگیزه‌ها، پیامدهای و راهبردهای تنظیم‌گری(1)، حوزه‌های پرمخاطره و تجربیات کشورهای منتخب (2)، گزارش دفتر مطالعات اقتصادی مرکز پژوهش‌های مجلس شورای اسلامی.

 

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