دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

2 دانشجو کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل، گروه حقوق عمومی و بین‌الملل، واحد پردیس بین‌الملل، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

چکیده

همه‌گیری ویروس کووید -19 (کرونا) بر اجرای تعهدات بین‌المللی دولت‌ها به‌‌ویژه در عرصة حقوق بشر تأثیرات چشمگیری گذاشت. در این میان، حق بر سلامت بیش از سایر حقوق نقض شد. به‌علاوه اگرچه قرنطینه‌سازی، فاصله‌گذاری اجتماعی، منع یا محدودسازی رفت‌وآمد و دسترسی به اطلاعات به‌منظور حفظ سلامت عمومی صورت گرفتند، در همین خصوص هم واکنش ناکارامد برخی دولت‌ها به نقض حق آزادی رفت‌وآمد و دسترسی به اطلاعات منتج شد. این مقاله با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی، ضمن بررسی عملکرد دولت‌ها در اجرای سه حق مذکور به این پرسش پاسخ می‌دهد که دولت‌ها برای توجیه نقض‌های ارتکابی، امکان استناد به کدام‌یک از عوامل رافع مسئولیت بین‌المللی را دارند؟ به‌نظر می‌رسد با توجه به آستانة بالای اثبات قوة قاهره، همه‌گیری کرونا تمامی الزامات این عامل همچون غیرممکن شدن اجرای تعهدات به‌نحو مادی را برآورده نمی‌کند. اما استناد به اضطرار و ضرورت بسیار محتمل است. البته نظر به تفاوت میان دولت‌ها از حیث میزان شیوع بیماری و ظرفیت‌های مقابله با آن، نمی‌توان این عوامل را قاطعانه نسبت به همة دولت‌ها قابل اعمال دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Invoking Circumstances Precluding Wrongfulness as Regards International Responsibility for Violation of Human-Rights Obligations during the Covid-19 Pandemic

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aghil Mohammadi 1
  • Faezeh Sadat Sajjadi 2

1 Assistant prof. Department of Public and International Law, School of Law and Political Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz,. Iran

2 M.A Student in International Law, Department of Public and International Law, International Campus Unit, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

چکیده [English]

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the implementation of states' international obligations, especially in terms of international human rights law. The right to health was violated more than any other rights. Although quarantines, social distancing, travel and access-to-information bans were imposed to protect public health, the inefficiency of some states led to the violation of the right to freedom of movement as well as the right to access information. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper will examine the implementation of these three rights during the COVID-19 pandemic and will ask which precluding circumstances can be invoked by states to justify violations of their obligations? It seems, given the high threshold for proving force majeure, the pandemic does not meet all the requirements of this factor, such as the impossibility of materially performing obligations. Nonetheless, distress and especially necessity seem worthy of consideration. Given the differences between states in terms of the severity of the pandemic and the capacity to deal with it, these factors cannot be considered as equally applicable to all states.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Covid-19
  • the Coronavirus
  • global pandemic
  • Human Rights Obligations
  • Force Majeure
  • Distress
  • necessity
  1. فارسی

الف) مقالات

  1. جاوید، احسان؛ نیاورانی، صابر (1392)، «قلمرو حق سلامتی در نظام بین‌المللی حقوق بشر»، فصلنامة پژوهش حقوق عمومی، دورة 15، ش 41، ص 70-47.
  2. زمانی، قاسم (1385)، «شبیه‌سازی درمانی و حق بر سلامتی در قلمرو حقوق بین‌الملل بشر»، فصلنامة پژوهش حقوق عمومی، دورة 8، ش 19، ص 41-25.
  3. سید مرتضی حسینی، راحله (1399)، «بحران کرونا و عدم امکان اجرای معاهدات بین‌المللی از سوی دولت‌ها»، فصلنامة تحقیقات حقوقی – ویژه‌نامة حقوق و کرونا، دورة 23، ص 457-437.
  4. غفارزاده، محمدامین (1393)، «آثار معاذیر اضطرار و ضرورت در مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت‌ها»، فصلنامة سیاست خارجی، دورة 28، ش 2، ص 346-317.
  5. ناصری ‌لاریجانی، نغمه (1389)، «تعامل میان حقوق معاهدات و حقوق سئولیت بین‌المللی در توجیه عدم ایفای تعهدات بین‌المللی»، مجلة حقوقی بین‌المللی، سال 27، ش 42، ص 265-233.

 

ب) تارنماهای اینترنتی

  1. شهبازی، آرامش (1399)، «تحلیل حقوقی شیوع ویروس کرونا در گسترة مقررات بهداشتی بین‌المللی»، (8/1/1399)، در: https://tisri.org/?id=gblaw0j8
  2. وکیل، امیرساعد (1399)، «آیا شیوع ویروس کرونا، توجیهی برای عدم اجرای تعهدات دولت‌هاست؟»، (8/1/1399)، در:

https://www.tabnak.ir/fa/news/968340/%D8%A2%DB%8C

 

  1. انگلیسی
  2. A) Books
  3. Crawford, James (2013), State Responsibility (The General Part), New York: Cambridge University Press.
  4. Gostin, Lawrence O. & Lazzarini, Zita )1997), Human Rights and Public Health in the AIDS Pandemic, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

 

  1. B) Articles
  2. Annacker, Claudia, Achtouk‑spivak, Laurie, Klinkmüller, Severin, Garden, Robert, Moore, Christopher, Kreindler, Richard, Zelbo, Howard, Vega‑gonzalez Martha E. (2020), “COVID-19: Public Health Emergency, Measures and State Defenses in International Investment Law”, Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP, pp.1-7.
  3. Christine, Marie & Thjoernelund, Hoelck (2009), “State of Necessity as an Exemption from State Responsibility for Investments”, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online, Vol.13, No.1, pp. 421-479.
  4. Droubi, Sufyan, Osorio, Leticia Marques, Terena, Luiz Eloy (2020), “The Brazilian Federal Supreme Court comes to the protection of indigenous people’s right to health in the face of Covid-19”, (23 December 2020),
  5. Ferhani, Adam & Rushton, Simon (2020), “The International Health Regulations, COVID-19, and bordering practices: Who gets in, what gets out, and who gets rescued?”, Contemporary Security Policy, Vol.41, No.3, pp. 458-477.
  6. Gathii, James Thuo (2006), “How Necessity May Preclude State Responsibility for Compulsory Licensing under the TRIPS Agreement”, The North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation, Vol.31, No.4, pp. 943-970.
  7. Gawronski, Christopher (2020), “Human Rights and COVID-19: Human Rights Obligations of States During The COVID-19 Pandemic”, (20 April 2020).
  8. Hasan, Haniya (2020), “Is an Ineffective State Response to COVID-19 a Violation of Human Rights?”, (16 June 2020).
  9. Hostmaelingen, Njal, Beate Bentzen, Heidi (2020), “How to operationalise human rights for COVID-19 measures”, BMJ Glob Health, Vol.5, No.7, pp. 1-4.
  10. Howie, Emily (2018), “Protecting the human right to freedom of expression in international law”, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, Vol.20, No.1, pp.12-15.
  11. Lebret, Audrey (2020), “COVID-19 pandemic and derogation to human rights”, Journal of Law and the Bio sciences, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 1–15.
  12. Nay, Olivier (2020), “Can a virus undermine human rights?”, Lancet Public Health Actions, Vol.5, No.5, pp. e238-e239.
  13. Ostrove, Micheal et al (2020), “State defences to investment claims arising from COVID-19”, (29 April 2020).
  14. Paddeu, Federica, Jephcott, Freya (2020), “COVID-19 and Defences in the Law of State Responsibility: Part I”, (17 March 2020).
  15. ---------------------------, “COVID-19 and Defences in the Law of State Responsibility: Part II”, (17 March 2020).
  16. Paddeu, Federica, Parlet, Kate (2020), “COVID-19 and Investment Treaty Claims”, (30 March 2020).
  17. Pearson, Esther (2018), “Towards human rights-based guidelines for the response to infectious disease epidemics: righting the response”, Australian Journal of Human Rights, Vol.24, No.2, pp.201-222.
  18. Toebes, Brigit (2015), “Human rights and public health: towards a balanced relationship”, The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol.19, No.4, pp. 488-504.
  19. Weidemaier, W. Mark C., Gulati, Mitu (2020), “Necessity and the Covid-19 pandemic”, Capital Markets Law Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 277–283.
  20. Wong, Meagan (2020), “The Law of State Responsibility and the Covid-19 Pandemic”, (30 Jun 2020), pp.321-330.

 

  1. C) Documents
  2. Constitution of the World Health Organization. 1947.
  3. European Social Charter (ESC), 1961.
  4. World Health Organization (WHO), International Health Regulations, 2005.
  5. International Law Commission (ILC), Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for International Wrongful Acts with Commentaries, UN Doc. A/56/10, 2001.
  6. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), 1966.
  7. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Art. 12), 11 August 2000, Document E/C.12/2000/4.
  8. United Nations (UN) (2020), “COVID-19 and Human Rights: We are all in this together”, Report on Human Rights and Covid-19, (23 April 2020).
  9. Human Rights Committee (HRC), “Statement on derogations from the Covenant in connection with the COVID-19 pandemic”, CCPR/C/128/2, 30 April 2020.
  10. WHO (2020), “Statement on the Second Meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005), Emergency Committee Regarding the Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)”, 21 June 2020.
  11. WHO, “Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)”, 30 January 2020.

 

  1. D) Awards
  2. GabCikovo-Nagymaros Project (HungarylSlovakia), Judgment, 1. C. J. Reports 1997, p. 7.
  3. Case of National Grid v. Argentina, International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes(ICSID), No: 1:09-cv-00248-RBW3, November 2008.
  4. Case of Impregilo S.p.A. v. Argentine Republic, ICSID, No. ARB/07/17, 21 June 2011.
  5. Case of Brincat and others v. Malta, European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), 24 July 2014.

 

  1. D) Websites
  2. International Bar Association (IBA) (2020), “Covid-19: potential legal actions against China”, (6 August 2020), https://www.ibanet.org/Article/NewDetail.aspx?ArticleUid=D1B023C0-4033-4197-B68D-C11301478271
  3. Keitner, Chimène (2020), “Don’t Bother Suing China for Coronavirus, (8 April 2020), https://www.justsecurity.org/69460/dont-bother-suing-china-for-coronavirus/
  4. Paul, David, (2020), “US Accuses China of Using Surveillance and Censorship Worldwide”, (22 July 2020), https://digit.fyi/us-accuses-china-of-using-surveillance-and-censorship-worldwide/
  5. The Economic Times (2020), “US State files lawsuit against China on Covid-19 handling”, News, (23 April 2020), https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/us-state-files-lawsuit-against-china-on-coronavirus-handling/articleshow/75286051.cms
  6. WHO (2020), “WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020”, (11 March 2020), https://www.who.int.
  7. Wise, Jacqui (2020), “Covid-19: New coronavirus variant is identified in UK”, News, (16 December 2020), https://www.bmj.com/content/371/bmj.m4857