دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه حقوق، دانشکدة حقوق و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

به دلیل شرایط متزلزل اجتماعی- اقتصادی، پناهندگان بیش از سایر جوامع انسانی در معرض دشواری‌های زیست جمعی قرار می گیرند و بحران کرونا در زمینه سلامت و بهزیستی آنان نگرانی ‌های جدی ایجاد نموده است. پرسش اصلی آن است که مقتضیات شرایط اضطراری ناشی از همه گیری بیماری کرونا، بر حقوق پناهندگان تضمین شده در معاهدات بین المللی، چه اثراتی گذاشته است؟ مطالعه سیاست‌های موردی و استقراء در رویکرد‌های عملی دولت‌های جهان در جوامع هدف نشان می‌د‌هد که به دلیل تعدد بازیگران تصمیم گیر در عرصه بین المللی و ملی، تضمین و رعایت حقوق بشر پناهندگان از الگوی واحدی تبعیت نمی‌نماید و طیف وسیعی از اقدامات متنوع از خودداری کامل رعایت حقوق این قشر تا پوشش فراگیر آن را نشان می دهد. غالب راه‌حل های مرتبط با مدیریت بحران نسبت به جوامع پناهندگی، کوتاه‌مدت بوده و از فراگیری و اثرگذاری برخوردار نیستند؛ همچنین تا میزان بسیار زیادی به درجه رفاه و توسعه یافتگی، و شدت و ضعف مقبولیت نهادها و موازین دموکراتیک کشور میزبان بستگی دارند. در نتیجه چنین شرایطی حقوق پناهندگان به طور مستمر و به نحو گسترده‌ای نقض گردیده و نگرانی‌های جدی را در خصوص تداوم این وضعیت در دوران پسا کرونا مطرح می نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Guaranteeing and observance of the rights of refugees in the light of the Corona virus crisis

نویسنده [English]

  • Soraya Rostami

Assistant Prof., Department of Law, Faculty of Law and Humanities, Islamic Azad University (Tehran Markazi branch), Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Due to volatile socio-economic conditions, refugees are more exposed to coexistence difficulties than other human societies, and the Corona virus crisis has raised serious concerns about their health and well-being. The main question is how the emergency situation resulting from the Corona epidemic have affected the rights of refugees guaranteed by international treaties? Study of policies and induction in the practical approaches of governments in the target communities shows that due to the multiplicity of decision-makers in the international and national arena, guaranteeing and respecting the human rights of refugees does not follow a single model and a has a wide range of measures. It shows a variety, from the complete refusal to respect of their rights to comprehensive coverage of it. Most crisis management solutions for refugee communities are short-lived and ineffective; they also depend largely on the degree of well-being and development, and the intensity and weakness of the acceptance of the democratic institutions and standards of the host country. As a result of such circumstances, the rights of refugees have been continuously and widely violated, raising serious concerns about the continuation of this situation in the post-Corona era.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corona Virus
  • Global Epidemic
  • Convention relating to the Status of Refugees
  • International Organizations
  • Refugee Rights
  1. فارسی
  2. رمضانی قوام‌آبادی، محمدحسین و علیپور، محمد (1400). ماهیت و کارکرد حقوق نرم در آرای دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری. فصلنامة مطالعات حقوق عمومی، 51 (1)، 389-408.

 

  1. انگلیسی
  2. A) Articles
  3. Alemi, Q., Stempel, C., Siddiq, H., & Kim, E. (2020). Refugees and COVID-19: Achieving a comprehensive public health response. Bulletin World Health Organization. 98, 510-510A. doi: http: //dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.20.271080.
  4. Beirens, H. (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic Suggests the lessons learned by European Asylum Policymakers After the 2015 migration Crisis Are Fading. Migration Policy Institute. (https://www.migrationpolicy.org/news/pandemic-lessons-learned-europe-asylum-fading)
  5. Chapagain, J. (2021). Refugees are paying the highest price in the COVID-19 pandemic. (https://reliefweb.int/report/world/refugees-are-paying-highest-price-covid-19 pandemic#:~:text=Jagan%20Chapagain%2C%20IFRC%20Secretary%20General,access%20health%20care%20and%20education.)
  6. Knoll, A. Bisong, A. (2020). Migration, mobility and COVID-19- A tale of many tales. in: ECDPM blog. (https://ecdpm.org/talking-points/migration-mobility-covid-19-tale-of-many-tales)
  7. Mc Glynn, N. (2020). Ignoring COVID-19 cases at Libya migrant centers will have­dir consequences for Europe. (https://www.euronews.com/2020/04/16/ignoring-covid-19-cases-libya-migrant-centres-will-have-dire-consequences-for-europe-view.)
  8. Mukumbang, F.C. (2020). Are asylum-seekers, refugees and foreign migrants considered in the COVID-19 vaccine discourse?. BMJ Global Health. 5, e004085. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh2020-0040.
  9. Reidy, E. (2020). The COVID-19 excuse? How migration policies are hindering around the globe. The New Humanitarian. (https://www.thenewhumanitarian.org/analysis/2020/04/17/coronavirus-global migration-policies-exploited.)
  10. Salmani, I., Seddighi, H.,& nikfard, M. (2020). Disaster Medicine and Public Health preparedness. dissaster medicine and public health preparedness. 14(4), 89-109. doi:10.1017/dmp.20202.240
  11. Santillana, M. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. (https://www.idea.int/news-media/news/impact-covid-19-migrants-asylum-seekers-and-refugees)
  12. Thomas, C., Osterholm, M., & Stuaffer, W.M. (2021). Critical Considerations for COVID-19 Vaccination of Refugees, Immigrants, and Migrants. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygene. 104(2), 433-435, doi: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-1614.

 

  1. B) Documents
  2. (2020). Apart together survey: Preliminary overview of refugees and migrants self-reported impact of COVID-19. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.O IGO
  3. Regional Office for Europe. (2020). Interim guidance for refugee and migrant health in relation to COVID-19 in the WHO European Region. (https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-determinants/migration-and-health/publications/2020/interim-guidance-for-refugee-and-migrant-health-in-relation-to-covid-19-in-the-who-european-region,-25-march-2020-produced-by-whoeurope.)
  4. (2021). A virus that respect no borders: Protecting refugees and migrants during COVID-19. (https://www.who.Int/news-room/feathure-stories/detail/a-virus-that-respect-no-borders-protecting-refugees-and-migrants-during-covid-19.)
  5. (2021). Refugees and migrants in times of COVID-19: Mapping trends of public health and migration policies and practices, Global Evidence Review on Health and Migration License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.O IGO, (https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240028906.)
  6. (2005). International Health Regulations. (https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241580496.)
  7. (2020). Refugees and the impact of COVID-19, Background Guide, Challenge Topic#1. MUN Refugee Challenge, (https://www.unhcr.org/5fc1262e4.pdf.)
  8. (2020). UK FAQs on COVID-19 in Relation to Refugees and Asylum Seekers. (https://www.unhcr.org/uk/unhcr-uk-faqs-on-covid-19-in-relation-to-refugees-and-asylum-seekers.html.)

 

  1. C) Judgemental Documents
  2. (1969). Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands v. Greece, Appl. no.3321-3323.67 and 3344/67. (The Greek Case). (https://www.echr.coe.int/Documents/Denmark_Norway_Sweden_Netherlands_v_Greece_I.pdf.)

 

  1. D) Websites
  2. http://ec.europa.eu/migrant-integration/news/covid-19s-impact-on-migrant-communities.
  3. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/news/pandemic-lessons-learned-Europe-asylum-fading.
  4. http://www.UNHCR.org/uk/news/latest/2016/7155dfoe556/unhcr-viewpoint-refugee-migrant-right.html.