دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدة علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد قم، قم، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه حقوق، دانشگاه حضرت معصومه (س)، قم، ایران

10.22059/jplsq.2022.327293.2832

چکیده

در چند دهة اخیر، نقض حقوق کودکان، به‌ویژه در حوزة مخاصمات مسلحانه، اجرای هنجارهای مرتبط با این قشر آسیب‌پذیر را تحت‌الشعاع قرار داده است. کودکان در جریان مخاصمات، در معرض کشتار، سربازگیری اجباری، بهره‌برداری جنسی و دیگر سوءاستفاده‌ها قرار می‌گیرند. نمونۀ بارز این آسیب‌ها، در کشورهای سیرالئون، کنگو و روآندا قابل استناد است. این پژوهش با تکیه بر رویکرد توصیفی-تحلیلی، درصدد بررسی رویة قضایی ایجادشده در دیوان بین‌المللی کیفری در خصوص جرم‌انگاری سربازگیری کودکان و چگونگی تحقق عدالت کیفری در این زمینه است. نتیجة بررسی‌های به‌عمل‌آمده، حاکی از آن است که دیوان بین‌المللی کیفری با ورود به قضیة توماس لوبانگا و محکوم کردن وی به اتهام سوءاستفاده از کودکان در مخاصمات مسلحانه، نقطة عطفی را در ایجاد رویة قضایی و طرح مسئولیت بین‌المللی در مقابله با بی‌کیفرمانی در زمینۀ نقض حقوق کودکان رقم زد. از سویی بحث انتساب مسئولیت کیفری به کودکان در صورت ارتکاب جنایت در حین مخاصمات به‌ویژه علیه جمعیت غیرنظامی بُعد دیگری از قضیه است که با راهبری هوشمندانة ارکان قضایی بین‌المللی، می‌توان به خاتمۀ این پدیدة شوم و محاکمة مسببان اصلی این اقدام مذمومانه خوش‌بین بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The International Criminal Court's approach to criminalize the recruitment of children in armed conflict

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yalda Naghizadeh 1
  • Seyed Hesamoddin Lesani 2

1 Ph.D Student in International Law, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Qom, Iran

2 Associate Prof, Department of Law, Faculty of Law, Hazrat-e-Masoumeh University, Qom, Iran

چکیده [English]

In recent decades, violations of children's rights, especially in the area of armed conflict, have overshadowed the implementation of norms related to this vulnerable group. Children are exposed to murder, forced conscription, sexual exploitation and other abuses during hostilities.Example of such injuries can be found in Sierra Leone, Congo and Rwanda. Relying on a descriptive-analytical approach, this study seeks to investigatethe judicial procedure established in the International Criminal Court regarding the criminalization of child recruitment and how to achieve criminal justice in this field. The results of the investigation show that the International Criminal Court entered the case of Thomas Lubanga and convicted him of child abuse in armed conflict, a turning point in the establishment of judicial procedure and international responsibility in confrontation with impunity and violation of chidren rights. On the other hand, the issue of assigning criminal responsibility to children in the event of a crime during hostilities, especially against the civilian population, is another dimension of the issue that, with the wise leadership of the international judiciary, can put an end to this phenomenon and prosecute its root causes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Criminal Court
  • Criminalization
  • Child Recruitment
  • Armed Conflict
  1. فارسی

- مقالات

  1. تقی‌زاده، زکیه و هداوندی، فاطمه (1391). مقابله با بحران سربازگیری کودکان در مخاصمات مسلحانه: نخستین رأی دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی در ترازوی حقوق بین‌الملل. مجلة پژوهش‌های حقوقی، (22)، نیمسال دوم، 187-224.
  2. رنجبریان، امیرحسین و ملک‌الکتاب خیابانی، مهدیه (1390). دادگاه ویژة سیرالئون: فرایند تشکیل، صلاحیت و مقابله با بی‌کیفرمانی. مجلة حقوقی بین‌المللی، سال بیست و هفتم، (43)، 123-167.
  3. فاخری، نریمان و صالحی، جواد (1393). رویة شعب بدوی و تجدیدنظر دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی در اصلاح اتهامات لوبانگا: از هماهنگی تا تعارض میان آیین‌نامة دیوان با اساسنامة رم. مجلة حقوقی بین‌المللی، (51)، پاییز- زمستان، 183-204.
  4. لسانی، سیدحسام‌الدین (1395). تعهد دولت‌ها مبنی بر بازبینی حقوقی تسلیحات جدید در حقوق بین‌الملل. فصلنامة مطالعات حقوق عمومی، 46(1)، 31-113.
  5. میرکمالی، سیدعلیرضا و پورحسن زیوه، سحر (1393). جرم سربازگیری کودکان از منظر حقوق بین‌المللی کیفری. مجلة پژوهش‌های حقوق جزا و جرم‌شناسی، (4)، نیمسال دوم، 97-126.

 

  1. انگلیسی
  2. A) Articles
  3. Abitria, R. A. (2012). The Contribution of the Case of Thomas Lubanga to the Development of International Law on the Protection of Child Soldiers. University of Kent, Kent Law School, 1-26.
  4. Amann, D. M. (2019). The Policy on Children of the ICC Office of the Prosecutor: Toward greater accountability for crimes against and affecting children, International Review of the Red Cross, 101(911), 537-549.
  5. Andvig, J. C., & Gates, S. (2010). Recruiting Children for Armed Conflict. ResearchGate, 77-92.
  6. Blattman, C., & Annan, J. (2010). The Consequences of Child Soldiering. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 92(4), 882-898.
  7. Coleman, J. (2008). Showing Its Teeth: The International Criminal Court Takes on Child Conscription in the Congo, but Is Its Bark Worse than Its Bite. Penn State International Law Review, (26), 764-785.
  8. Drumbl, M. A. (2012). Child Soldiers and Clicktivism: Justice, Myths, and Prevention. Journal of Human Rights Practice, 4(3), 481-485.
  9. Drumbl, M. A. (2012). Reimagining Child Soldiers in International Law and Policy. Oxford University Press, 724-727.
  10. Du Plessis, M. (2004). Children under International Criminal Law. African Security Studies, (13), 103-111.
  11. Freeland, S. (2008). Mere Children or Weapons or War-Child Soldiers and International Law. Western Sydney University, School of Law,(29), 19-55.
  12. Kononenko, L. (2016). Prohibiting the Use of Child Soldiers: Contested Norm in Contemporary Human Rights Discourse. Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 34(2), 89–103.
  13. McQueen, A. (2019). Falling Through the Gap: The Culpability of Child Soldiers Under International Criminal Law. Notre Dame Law Review Online, 94(2), 99-127.
  14. Quenivet, N. (2017). Does and Should International Law Prohibit the Prosecution of Children for War Crimes?. The European Journal of International Law, 28(2), 433-455.
  15. Rosen, D. M. (2007). Child Soldiers, International Humanitarian Law, and the Globalization of Childhood. American Anthropologist, 109(2), 296-306.
  16. Takahashi, Y. A. (2019). War Crimes Relating to Child Soldiers and Other Children that are Otherwise Associated with Armed Groups in Situations of Non-International Armed Conflict. An incremental step toward a coherent legal framework?. QIL, Zoom-in, 25-48.
  17. Talbert, M., & Wolfendale, J. (2018). The Moral Responsibility of Child Soldiers and the Case of Dominic Ongwen. Stockholm Centre for the Ethics of War and Peace, 1-5.
  18. Waschefort, G. (2010). Justice for Child Soldiers? The RUF Trial of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. International Humanitarian Legal Studies, (1), 189-204.
  19. Webster, T. (2007). Babes with Arms: International Law and Child Soldiers. CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY, (39), 226-254.
  20. Yuvaraj, J. (2016). When Does a Child ‘Participate Actively in Hostilities’ under the Rome Statute? Protecting Children from Use in Hostilities after Lubanga. UTRECHT JOURNAL OFINTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN LAW, 32 (83), 69-92.

 

  1. B) Documents & Reports
  2. Convention on the Rights of the Child, UN Doc. A/44/49 (1989) (entered into force on 2 September 1990) Article 38 [Hereafter ‘CRC’].
  3. Democratic Republic of the Congo v Uganda (Judgment)(2005), General List No. 116, ICJ Reppara, 192 & 185
  4. Dissenting Opinion of Judge Anita Ušacka (2014), available at: https://www.icc-cpi.int/RelatedRecords/CR2014_09850.PDF
  5. Impact of Armed Conflict on Children, Report of the expert of the Secretary-General (1996), Ms.Graca Machel, submitted pursuant to General Assembly resolution 48/157 (A/51/306).
  6. Norman Child Recruitment case (2004), supra note 16, Judge Robertson's dissenting opinion, para. 5
  7. Prosecutor v Samuel Hinga Norman (2004), Appeals Chamber, Special Court for Sierra Leone, decision on preliminary motion based on lack of jurisdiction (child recruitment, para. 17.
  8. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Decision on Sentence (2010), ICC-01/04-01/06 (Trial Chamber I), para.12.
  9. Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute, ICC-01/04-01/06-2842, T.Ch. I, 14 March 2012, para. 14 ii).
  10. Report of the Secretary-General, Children and Armed Conflict (2019), Available at: https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/document/2018-secretary-general-annual-report-on-children-and-armed-conflict.
  11. Situation in Democratic Republic of Congo in the Case of Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo (2012),(Separate and Dissenting Opinion of Judge Odio Benito: Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute) ICC-01/04-01/06-2842 (ICC Trial Chamber I) (Benito Dissenting) para 18.
  12. Sndoz, C.Swinarski and B.Zimmerman (eds.)(1987), Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949.

 

  1. C) Websites
  2. Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Global Report on Child Soldiers (2001), London available at: https://reliefweb.int/report/afghanistan/global-report-child-soldiers-2001-launch-child-soldiers-overview.
  3. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment (2007), available at: https://www.refworld.org/docid/4670fca12.html.
  4. Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (1949), available at: https://ihl-databases.icrc.org/ihl/INTRO/380.
  5. Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child, 1924 –Text (1924, available at: https://www.humanium.org/en/text-2/.
  6. International Committee on the Red Cross, The Paris Commitments to Protect Children from Unlawful Recruitment or Use by Armed Forces or Armed Groups (2007),(available at http://www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/the-paris-commitments.pdf.
  7. Lubanga Case, The Prosecutor v. Thomas Lubanga Dyilo (2009), available at: https://www.icc-cpi.int/drc/lubanga Case, ICC-01/04-01/06.
  8. Office of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children Armed conflicts (2000), available at: http://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/mandate/opac.
  9. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (2002), available at: http://legal.un.org/icc/index.html.
  10. Siatitsa, Ilia and Titberidze, Maia (2010), “Human Rights in Armed Conflict from the Perspective of the Contemporary State Practice in the United Nations: Factual Answers to Certain Hypothetical Challenges”, available at: http://www.rulac.org/assets/downloads/State_practice_human_rights_in_armed_conflict.pdf.
  11. UN Doc, A/69/926-S/2015/409, UN General Assembly, “Annual Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflicts” (2015), available at: http://watchlist.org/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads.
  12. UN SCOR (2000), SC Res 1315, 4186th meeting, UN Doc S/RES/1315 (14 August 2000) available at: https://research.un.org/en/docs/sc/or
  13. UNICEF, The Paris Principles and Guidelines on Children Associated with Armed Forces or Armed Groups (2007), available at: http://www.unicef.org/emerge/files/ParisPrinciples310107English.pdf,