نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه حقوق، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا همدان، همدان، ایران

2 دانش آموختۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، دانشکدۀ حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

اصل مصونیت دولت‌ها از اصول مسلم حقوق بین‌الملل عرفی و اعراض از مصونیت از سوی دولت، یکی از استثناهای پذیرفته‌شده بر این اصل است. بی‌تردید، پذیرش ارجاع اختلاف به داوری بین‌المللی از سوی دولت، اعراض از مصونیت صلاحیتی در قبال آن دولت تلقی خواهد شد. اما، چنین اقدامی به‌منزلة اعراض از مصونیت اجرایی در خصوص رأی داوری تلقی نمی‌گردد و صرف‌نظر کردن از مصونیت اجرایی، به اعراض جداگانه‌ای نیاز دارد. حتی پس از گذر از مانع مصونیت اجرایی نیز یافتن اموال اقتصادی غیرحاکمیتی دولت محکوم‌علیه، امری مشکل است. با این حال، راه‌حل‌هایی همچون حمایت دیپلماتیک، بیمه، توافق بر تعدیل یا تغییر شرایط پرداخت، فروش یا انتقال رأی به شخص ثالث و فشارهای جامعۀ بین‌المللی و دولت متبوع محکوم‌له از طریق حذف یا تعلیق تعرفه‌های تجاری می‌توانند به اجرای رأی داوری کمک کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The State Immunity Defence after Accepting Sending the Dispute to International Arbitration

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sattar Azizi 1
  • Vahid Bazzar 2

1 Associate Professor of Boali University

2 P.H.D In International Law, Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The principle of state immunity is one of the incontrovertible rules of customary international law and waiver of immunity is one of the accepted exceptions on this principle. acceptance of referring the dispute to international arbitration by the state, shall be certainly deemed waiver of jurisdictional immunity in respect of that State. However, such an act shall not be deemed a waiver of execution immunity of the arbitration award and refraining from this immunity needs to separate waiver. Even after passing than execution immunity is difficult to find commercial nongovernmental properties of defendant state. However, solutions such as diplomatic protection, insurance, agreeing to modify or change the terms of payment, sale or transfer to third person and pressures from the international community and State of nationality of applicant by the removal or suspension of trade tariffs can help to execution of arbitration award.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • State Immunity
  • International Arbitration
  • Jurisdictional Immunity
  • Execution Immunity
  • Enforcement of Arbitration Order

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

1. دالزر، رودلف؛ شروئر، کریستف. (1391). اصول حقوق بین‌الملل سرمایه‌گذاری، ترجمۀ سید قاسم زمانی و به‌آذین حسیبی، تهران: مؤسسۀ مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.

2. عبداللهی، محسن؛ شافع، میرشهبیز (1386). مصونیت قضایی دولت در حقوق بین‌الملل، تهرا: ادارۀ چاپ و انتشارات ریاست جمهوری.

 

ب) مقالات

3. بذّار، وحید (1393). «جایگاه مسئولیت بین‌المللی در حقوق بین‌الملل در پرتو طرح‌های کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل در خصوص مسئولیت بین‌المللی دولت‌ها (2001) و سازمان‌های بین‌المللی (2011)»، فصلنامۀ حقوق ملل، ش 16، ص 124-115.

4. بیگ‌زاده، ابراهیم (1394). «مصونیت دولت‌ها و سازمان‌های بین‌المللی در پرتو تحولات حقوق بین‌الملل»، مجموعه مقالات همایش مصونیت در حقوق بین‌الملل، به اهتمام محسن عبداللهی، تهران: مجد، ص 58-37.

5. شهبازی، محمدعلی (1394). «بررسی مبانی استثنائات وارده بر مصونیت دولت در حقوق بین‌الملل با تأکید بر اقدام کانادا برای نقض مصونیت دولت ایران»، مجموعه مقالات همایش مصونیت در حقوق بین‌الملل، به اهتمام محسن عبداللهی، تهران: مجد، ص 215-191.

6. عسکری، پوریا (1394). «مصونیت دولت و اجرای آرای داوری سرمایه‌گذاری با تمرکز بر کنوانسیون 1965 واشنگتن»، مجموعه مقالات همایش مصونیت در حقوق بین‌الملل، به اهتمام محسن عبداللهی، تهران: مجد، ص 148-140.

7. محبی، محسن؛ بذّار، وحید (1397). «مفهوم استناد به مسئولیت بین‌المللی با تأکید بر طرح کمیسیون حقوق بین‌الملل (2001)»، فصلنامۀ مطالعات حقوق عمومی، دورۀ 48، ش 1، ص 222-201.

8. یوسفیان، الهام (1394). «تحول کند حقوق مصونیت دولت: نقد و تحلیل رأی اخیر دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری در دعوای آلمان علیه ایتالیا»، مجموعه مقالات همایش مصونیت در حقوق بین‌الملل، به اهتمام محسن عبداللهی، تهران: مجد، ص 190-174.

 

2. لاتین

A) Books:

9. Brownlie, Ian. (2008). Principles of Public International Law, Oxford University Press.

10. Petrochilos, Georgios. (2004). Procedural Law in International Arbitration, Oxford University Press.

11. Yang, Xiaodong. (2012). State Immunity in International Law, Cambridge University Press.

12. Shaw, Malcolm N. (2003). International Law, Cambridge University Press.

13. Schreuer, Christoph H. and Malintoppi, Loretta and Reinisch, August and Sinclair, Anthony. (2009). The ICSID Convention: A Commentary on the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States, Cambridge University Press.

 

B) Articles

14. Akande, Rowland Alaba. (2014). “Enforcement and Practicability of Sovereign Immunity Doctrine in International Commercial Arbitration,” Journal of Politics and Law, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 143-149.

15. Alexandroff, Alan S. and Laird, Ian A. (2008). “Compliance and Enforcement,” in The Oxford Handbook of International Investmant Law, edited by Peter Muchlinksi and Federico Ortino and Christoph Schreuer, Oxford University Press, pp. 1170-1196.

16. Bjorklund, Andrea K. (2010). “Sovereign Immunity as a Barrier to the Enforcement of Investor-State Arbitral Awards: The Re-Politicization of International Investment Disputes,” The American Review of International Arbitration, Vol. 21, pp. 211-242.

17. Bjorklund, Andrea K. (2009). “State Immunity and the Enforcement of Investor-State Arbitral Awards,” in International Investmant Law for the 21st Century: Essays in Honour of Christoph Schreuer, edited by Christina Binder and Ursula Kriebaum and August Reinisch, and Stephan Wittich, Oxford University Press, pp. 295-326.

18. Blane, Alexis. (2009), “Sovereign Immunity as a Bar to the Execution of International Arbitral Awards,” International Law and Politics, Vol. 41, pp. 453-505.

19. Brazil-David, Renata. (2011). “International Commercial Arbitration Involving a State Party and the Defense of State Immunity,” The American Review of International Arbitration, Vol. 22, pp. 250-283.

20. Cardosi, Joseph M. (2013). “Precluding the Treasure Hunt: How the World Bank Group Can Help Investors Circumnavigate Sovereign Immunity Obstacles to ICSID Award Execution,” Pepperdine Law Review, Vol. 41, Issue. 1, pp. 117-156.

21. Cheng, Tai-Heng and Entchev, Ivo. (2014). “State Incapacity and Sovereign Immunity in International Arbitration,” Singapore Academy of Law Journal, Vol. 26, pp. 942-974.

22. Chukwumerije, Okezie. (1990), “ICSID Arbitration and Sovereign Immunity,” Anglo-American Law Review, Vol. 19, pp. 166-182.

23. Delaume, Georges. (1981), “State Contracts and Transnational Arbitration,” American Journal of International Law, Vol. 75, pp. 778-805.

24. Foster, George K. (2008). “Collecting from Sovereigns The Current Legal Framework for Enforcing Arbitral Awards and Court Judgments Against States and their Instrumentalities, and some Proposals for its Reform,” Arizona Journal of International & Comparative Law, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 666-731.

25. Fox, Hazel. (2008). “State Immunity and the New York Convention,” in Enforcement of Arbitration Agreements and International Arbitral Awards: the New York Convention in Practice, edited by Emmanuel Gaillard and Srilal Domenico di Pietro, Cameron May Ltd, pp. 829-864.

26. François-Poncet, Sarah. (2009). “Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards Against Sovereign States or State Entities-France,” in Enforcement of Arbitral Awards against Sovereigns, edited by R. Doak Bishop, JurisNet, LLC, pp. 355-380.

27. Gerlich, Olga. (2015). “State Immunity from Execution in the Collection of Awards Rendered in International Investment Arbitration The Achilles' Heel of the Investor-State Arbitration System?,” The American Review of International Arbitration, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 47-99.

28. Guglya, Leonila. (2011). “International Review of Decisions Concerning Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards: A Threat to the Sovereignty of the States or an Overestimated Hazard (So Far)?,” in Czech Yearbook of International Law 93, edited by Alexander J. Belohlavek and Nadezda Rozehnalova, Vol. 2, pp. 93-121.

29. Jagusch, Stephen and Sinclair, Anthony. (2006). “The Impact of Third Parties on International Arbitration- Issues of Assignment,” in Pervasive Problems in International Arbitration, edited by Mistelis, Loukas A. and Lew, Julian D.M., pp. 285-326.

30. Jin, Sun. (2010). “The Linkage Requirement in Enforcement Immunity,” Chinese Journal International Law, Vol. 9, Issue. 4, pp. 699-716.

31. Kuipers, Jacob A. (2016). “Too Big to Nail: How Investor-State Arbitration Lacks an Appropriate Execution Mechanism for the Largest Awards,” Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, Vol. 39, Issue. 2, pp. 417-451.

32. Maniruzzaman, A.F.M. (2010). “Sovereign Immunity and the Enforcement of Arbitral Awards against State Entities: Recent Trends in Practice,” in Handbook on International Arbitration Practice, pp. 335-350.

33. Maniruzzaman, A.F.M. (2005). “State Enterprise, Arbitration and Sovereign Immunity Issues: A Look at Recent Trends,” Dispute Resolution Journal, Vol. 60, Issue. 3, pp. 76-84.

34. Mistelis, Loukas. (2013), “Award as an Investment: The Value of an Arbitral Award or the cost of Non-Enforcement,” ICSID Review, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 1-28.

35. Mistelis, Loukas and Baltag, Crina. (2008), “Recognition and Enforcement of Arbitral Awards and Settlement in International Arbitration: Corporate Attitudes and Practice,” The American Review of International Arbitration, Vol. 19, pp. 319-376.

36. Mistelis, Loukas. (2008). “The Settlement-Enforcement Dynamic in International Arbitration,” The American Review of International Arbitration, Vol. 19, pp. 377-415.

37. Muchlinski, Peter. (2008). “Policy Issues,” in The Oxford Handbook of International Investmant Law, edited by Peter Muchlinksi and Federico Ortino and Christoph Schreuer, Oxford University Press, pp. 15-53.

38. O'Keefe, Roger and Brown, Chester. (2013). “The United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property,” edited by Roger O'Keefe, Christian J. Tams, Oxford University Press, pp. 293-308.

39. Osinbajo, Yemi. (1992). “Sovereign Immunity in International Commercial Arbitration: The Nigerian Experience and Emerging State Practice” African Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, pp. 1-25.

40. Nmehielle, Vincent O. (2001). “Enforcing Arbitration Awards under the International Convention for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID Convention),” Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, pp. 21-48.

41. Parra, Antonio R. (2007). “The Enforcement of ICSID Arbitral Awards,” 24th Joint Colloquium on International Arbitration, Paris, November 16, 2007, pp. 1-12.

42. Reinisch, August. (2006). “European Court Practice Concerning State Immunity from Enforcement Measures,” The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 803-836.

43. Rosenberg, Charles B. (2013). “The Intersection of International Trade and International Arbitration: The Use of Trade Benefits to Secure Compliance with Arbitral Awards,” Georgetown Journal of International Law, Vol. 44, pp. 503-530.

44. Ryngaert, Cedrik. (2013), “Embassy Bank Accounts and State Immunity from Execution: Doing Justice to the Financial Interests of Creditors,” Leiden Journal International Law, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, pp. 73-88.`

45. Salomon, Claudia T. and Duffy, J.P. (2011). “Enforcement Begins when the Arbitration Clause Drafted,” The American Review of International Arbitration, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 271-284.

46. zSchneider, Michael E. and Knoll, Joachim. (2009). “Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards Against Sovereign-Switzerland,” in Enforcement of Arbitral Awards against Sovereigns, edited by R. Doak Bishop, JurisNet, LLC, pp. 310-355.

47. Sharma, Rajesh. (2011). “Enforcement of Arbitral Awards and Defence of Sovereignty: The Crouching Tiger and the Hidden Dragon,” Lapland Law Review, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, pp. 252-264.

48. Uchkunova, Inna and Temnikov, Oleg. (2014). “Enforcement of Awards Under the ICSID Convention- What Solutions to the Problem of State Immunity?,” ICSID Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 187-211.

49. Van Alebeek, Rosanne. (2013). “The United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their Property,” edited by Roger O'Keefe, Christian J. Tams, Oxford University Press, pp. 153-166.

50. Vinuales, Jorge E. and Bentolila, Dolores. (2012). “The Use of Alternative (Non-Judicial) Means to Enforce Investment Awards against States,” in Diplomatic and Judicial Means of Dispute Settlement, edited by Laurence Boisson de Chazournes and Marcelo G. Kohen and Jorge E. Vinuales, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 247-280.

51. Voon, Tania and Mitchell, Andrew and Munro, James. (2014). “Parting Ways: The Impact of Mutual Termination of Investment Treaties on Investor Rights,” ICSID Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 451-473.

52. Zdobnoh, Dmitri and Vark, Rend. (2010). “State Immunity from Execution: In Search of a Remedy,” Acta Societatis Martensis, Vol. 4, pp. 161-183.