نوع مقاله: علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموختۀ دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه حقوق بین الملل پردیس فارابی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

سال‌هاست که اسرائیل سیاستِ کشتن هدفمندِ مبارزان فلسطینی را دنبال می‌کند. از آغاز انتفاضۀ الاقصی در سال 2000، راهبرد کشتار هدفمند به‌طور آشکار یکی از سیاست‌های عمومی اسرائیل است. رژیم حقوقی حاکم بر اجرای این راهبرد، همواره از موضوعات چالش‌برانگیز در حوزۀ حقوق بین‌الملل است، که در این مقاله بررسی شده است. از آنجا که برای تعیین رژیم حقوقی حاکم، ابتدا باید زمینۀ وقوع این‌گونه از عملیات در وضعیت جنگی یا صلح بررسی شود، در این مقاله با عنایت به ادلۀ حقوقی، اثبات می‌شود که رویارویی اسرائیل با نوار غزه، بنا به دولت بودن فلسطین و شروع محاصرۀ دریایی غزه به‌عنوان نوعی اقدام تجاوزکارانه، یک مخاصمۀ مسلحانۀ بین‌المللی است. در نتیجه، باید رژیم حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه بر کشتار هدفمند اسرائیل در این منطقه اعمال شود و نسبت به سایر قلمروهای اشغالی و در زمان صلح، رژیم حقوق بشر قابل اعمال است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The legal regime applicable to the policy of Targeted killing of Israel on the Territory of Palestine

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahvash Monfared 1
  • Seyyd Ahmad Tabatabaei 2

1 Ph.D. in International Law, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of International Law at Farabi college of Tehran University

چکیده [English]

For many years, Israel has pursued a policy of targeted killings of Palestinian fighters. Since the beginning of the Aqsa Intifada in 2000, the targeted killings strategy has been clearly announced as one of Israeli public policy. The legal regime governing this strategy for those suspected of attacking is always one of the most challenging issues in the realm of international law. Given that the applicable ruling regime must first be investigated in the context of the operation in a situation of war or peace, in this article, according to legal arguments, it is emphasized that the Israeli confrontation with the Gaza Strip, Because of the Palestine's statehood and the start of a Gaza blockade as an act of aggression is an international armed conflict. As a result, the legal regime governing the Targeted killing of Israel in this area during armed conflicts is the International Humanitarian law and in relation to other occupied territories and in times of peace, is the Human rights regime.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Targeted killings
  • International Humanitarian law
  • International Human Rights law
  • Israel
  • Palestine

1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

1. فلک، دیتر (1391)، حقوق بشردوستانه در مخاصمات مسلحانه، ترجمۀ قاسم زمانی و نادر ساعد، چ دوم، تهران: شهر دانش.

2. قربان‌نیا، ناصر (1387)، حقوق بشر و بشردوستانه، تهران: پژوهشگاه فرهنگ و اندیشۀ اسلامی.

 

ب) مقالات[S1] 

3. اخوان فرد، مسعود؛ چهل‌تنی، سید مهدی (1388)، «جنگ غزه و عملکرد نهادهای بین‌المللی»، فصلنامۀ حقوقی گواه، سال چهاردهم.

4. رمضانی قوام‌آبادی، محمدحسین (1395)، «از شناسایی دولت فلسطین تا عضویت در دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی». فصلنامۀ دولت‌پژوهی، ش 7.

5. سیاه رستمی، هاجر (1389)، «حقوق بشر سرزمین‌های اشغالی»، دوفصلنامۀ مجلۀ حقوقی بین‌المللی، ش 39.

6. طباطبایی، احمد؛ محبی انجدانی، داوود (1393)، «حقوق بین‌الملل و تشکیل کشور مستقل فلسطینی»، پژوهش‌های روابط بین‌الملل، دورۀ 1، ش 11.

7. لسانی، حسام‌الدین؛ منفرد، مهوش (1396)، «تأملی بر سیاست کشتار هدفمند از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه»، مجلۀمطالعاتحقوقیدانشگاهشیراز، دورۀ 9، ش 2.

8. ممتاز، جمشید؛ علیزاده، مسعود؛ زرنشان، شهرام (1396)، «محاصرۀ دریایی غزه از منظر حقوق بین‌الملل»،فصلنامۀ مطالعات راهبردی، ش 76.

 

 

2. انگلیسی

A) Books

9. Melzer, Nils (2009), Targeted Killing in International Law, Oxford University press.

10. Meron, Theodor (2006), the Humanization of Humanitarian Law, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Vol. 3.

11. Otto, Roland (2012), targeted killing and international law, Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York.

 

B) Articles

12. Bell. A, Shefi D (2010), “The mythical post-2005 Israeli occupation of the Gaza Strip”. Isr Aff16:268–296.

13. Ben- Naftali, Orna & Michaeli, Keren R (2003), “'We Must Not Make a Scarecrow of the Law': A Legal Analysis of the Israeli Policy of Targeted Killings”, Cornell International Law Journal, Vol. 36.

14. Bishart, George (2009), “Israel's Invasion of Gaza in International Law’, UC Hastings College of the Law.

15. Blum, Gabriella and Heymann, Philip (2010), “Law and Policy of Targeted Killing”, Harvard National Security Journal, Vol. 1—June 27.

16. Cullen, Anthoney & Divac, Marko (2008), “Prosecutor v. Ramush Haradinaj et al.: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the Threshold of Non-International Armed Conflict in International Humanitarian Law”, ASIL Insights, Vol. 12, Issue 7.

17. Cuyckens, Hanne (2016). “Is Israel Still an Occupying Power in Gaza?” Springerlink.

18. Finkelstein, M (2003). “Legal perspective in the fight against terror—the Israeli experience” IDFLaw Review.

19. Kassem, A. S (2012). Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas): Performance Evaluation, American International Journal of Contemporary Research.

20. Keller & Forowicz (2008),” A TightropeWalk between Legality and Legitimacy: An Analysis of the Israeli Supreme Court’s Judgment on Targeted Killing”, Leiden Journal of International Law, 21[V2] .

21.  Keller, Helen and Forowicz, Magdalena, A, (2008). “Tightrope Walk Between Legality and Legitimacy: An Analysis of the Israeli Supreme Courts Judgment on Targeted Killing”, Leiden Journal of International Law, pp. 185–221.

22. Kretzmer, David (2005), “Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists: Extra Judicial Executions or Legitimate Means of Defence?” The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 16, No.2.

23. Major J. A. Robbs (1988), “Low Intensity Conflict: A War by Any Other Name”, Subject Area National Military Strategy.

24. Major J. A. Robbs (1988), “Low Intensity Conflict: A War by Any Other Name”, Subject area National Military Strategy.

25. Margarit, Alon (2012),”Did LOAC Take the Lead? Reassessing Israels Trgeted Killing of Salah Shehadeh and the Subsequent Calls for Crimimnal Accountability”, journal of conflict & security law.

26. Melman, Yossi (2009), “Targeted Killings: ARetro Fashion Very Much in Vogue”, Haaretz, Mar. 15.

27. Scobbie, lain (2004-5), “An Intimate Disengagement: Israel's Withdrawal from Gaza, the Law of Occupation and ofSelf-Determination”, 11 Y.B. Islamic and Mid. Eastern L. 3, 20-22.

28. Steven, R. David (2003),Policy of Targeted Killings”, Ethics & International Affairs 17, No.1.

29. Thomas, J. Murphy (1984), “Sanctions and Enforcement of the Humanitarian Law of the Four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and Geneva Protocol I of 1997”, 103 MiL. L. REV. 3, pp. 1 -12.

30. Weill, Sharon (2007), “The judicial arm of the occupation: the Israeli military courts in the occupied territories”, international Review on the Red Cross, ICRC, Vol. 89, No. 866.

31. Wilmshurst, Elizabeth (2012),” International Law and the Classification of Conflicts”, Oxford Scholarly Authorities on International Law [OSAIL].

 

C) Documents

32. Amnesty International, The Conflict in Gaza: A Briefing on Applicable Law, Investigations, And Accountability, At 6 (2009),available at: http://www.amnestyusa.org/pdf/gazabriefing.pdf.

32. Antonio Cassese, "Expert Opinion on Whether Israel"s Targeted Killings of Palestinian Terrorists is Consonant with International Humanitarian Law", (2003).

33. Balfour Declaration, (November 2, 1917).

34. B'tselem, The GazaStrip: Israel'sControl of the Airspace and Territorial Waters of the GazaStrip, air space and territorial waters.asp.

35. Commission on Human Rights, Question of the Violation of Human Rights in the Occupied Arab Territories, including Palestine, Report of the human rights inquiry commission, (E/CN.4/2001/121), (16 Mar. 2001).

36. Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel (May 14, 1948).

37. Hamdan v Rumsfeld, 548 U.S. 557 (2006) at p.6: “the [Geneva] Conventions do not apply because Hamdan was captured during the war with al Qaeda, which is not a Conventions signatory, and that conflict is distinct from the war with signatory Afghanistan.”

38. HCJ 769/02 Pub. Comm. against Torture in Isr. v. Gov’t of Isr. (PCATI) [Dec. 11, 2005].

39. HCJ 9132/07 jeber Al-Bassiouni v. Prime Minister and others, 9132/07, (accessed 6 April 2010).

40. Human Rights In Palestine And Other Occupied Arab Territories Report Of The United Nations Fact Finding Mission On The Gaza Conflict, A/Hrc/12/48, and (23 September 2009).

41. ICRC Commentary on Convention (IV), 1958.

42. Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty, signed in Washington, D.C. on March 26, 1979.

43. Israel-PLO Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip (Treaty of Taba/“Oslo II”).

44. Laws And Customs of War on Land (Hague, IV), Convention signed at The Hague October 18, 1907, with annex of regulations.

45. Legal Consequences of the Construction of aWall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

46. Legality of the Threat or Use of NuclearWeapons, Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996,ICJ Rep. (1996)

47. Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, enacted: 1933-12-26, in force: 1934-1226.

48. Prize Cases, 67 U.S. 2 Black 635 635 (1862), U.S. Supreme Court.

49. Prosecutor v. Ramush Haradinaj, Idriz Balaj and Lahi Brahimaj, Judgement, April 3, 2008, Case No. IT-04-84-T.

50. Sharm El-Sheikh FactFinding Committee, the Mitchell Report 24 (Apr. 30, 2001).

51. Tadic Appeal, supra note 110, para. 70. The definition was later incorporated in article 8(2) (f) of the Rome Statute.

52. The Report of the Secretary-General’s Panel of Inquiry Palmer Report on the 31 May 2010 Flotilla Incident (Palmer Report) (September 2011)

53. U.N. Doc. A/HRC/2/5 (Sept. 5, 2006).

54. U.S.v. Wilhelm List, et al. (Hostages Trial), 15 I.L.R. 646 (Nuremberg Military Tribunal, quoted in Palestinian Liberation Organization -Negotiations Affairs Department, supra note 39. (1948)

55. UN Doc. A/RES/3236 (1974)

56. UN Doc. A/519 (1947).