دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت علمی و استادیار دانشکدة حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

ارجاع قضیة تحریم‌های آمریکا از سوی دولت ونزوئلا به دیوان کیفری بین‌المللی این سؤال را ایجاد کرده است که آیا می‌توان تحریم‌های اقتصادی را به‌عنوان جنایت علیه بشریت مشمول صلاحیت دیوان دانست یا خیر. از آنجا که این نخستین‌بار است که تعقیب تحریم‌ها به‌مثابة یک جرم بین‌المللی نزد محاکم کیفری جهانی مطرح می‌شود، پاسخ این پرسش را به‌صراحت در رویة قضایی نمی‌توان یافت. با این وجود این نوشتار با رجوع به اساسنامة رم در کنار رویة قضایی اثبات می‌کند که عنوان مجرمانة رفتارهای غیرانسانی مندرج در بند «ک» مادة 7 اساسنامة رم آن دسته از تحریم‌های اقتصادی را که موجب ایجاد رنج یا آسیب جدی به سلامت شهروندان شود، شامل می‌شود، مشروط بر آنکه اعمال تحریم‌ها در راستای سیاست دولت تحریم‌کننده برای اقدام علیه جمعیت غیرنظامی جامعة هدف تحریم باشد. در اثبات این مدعا تحریم‌های آمریکا علیه ایران بررسی خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Prosecuting Economic Sanctions as Crimes against Humanity

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohamamd Hadi Zakerhossein

Assistant Professor, department of criminal law and criminology, Faculty of Law and Political Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Referral of the US sanctions situation by the government of Venezuela to the International Criminal Court poses the question of whether economic sanctions may fall within the ICC jurisdiction as crimes against humanity. It is the first time that the issue of sanctions is brought before an international criminal tribunal and therefore the response could not be found in the jurisprudence. Nevertheless, by analyzing the law and practice of the Court this article proves that the category of other inhumane acts as referred to in Paragraph K of Article 7 of the Rome Statute include those economic sanctions that cause great suffering and serious harm to the health of any civilian population, provided that are carried out in furtherance of a State policy against ordinary people. In establishing this proposal, the US sanctions against Iran is analyzed as a case.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • International Criminal Court
  • Sanction
  • Inhumane Acts
  • human rights
  • Right to Health
A) Books
1. Ambos, Kai, (2014), Treatise on International Criminal Law Volume II: The Crimes and Sentencing, Oxford University Press.
2. --------------- (2013), Treatise on International Criminal Law Volume I: Foundations and General Part, Oxford University Press.
3. Asadi, Fallah (2016), UNSC: Sanctions and Human Rights, Tehran, Shahre Danesh.
4. Bassiouni, Cherif (2011), Crimes against Humanity: Historical Evolution and Contemporary Application, Cambridge University Press.
5. Farrall, Jeremy (2007), United Nations Sanctions and the Rule of Law, Cambridge University Press.
6. GRC, Global Rights Compliance (2019), The Crime of Starvation and Methods of Prosecution and Accountability.
7. Heanen, Iris (2014), Force & Marriage, The Criminalization of Forced Marriage, Intersentia.
8. Hebel H. von and David Robinson (1999), Crimes within the Jurisdiction of the Court, in R. S. Lee (ed.) The International Criminal Court: The Making of the Rome Statute, Kluwer Law International.
9. Hufbauer, Gary; Geffrey Schott and Elliott (2007), Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
10. Kondoch, Boris (2001), The Limits of Economic Sanctions under International Law: The Case of Iraq, The Yearbook of International Peace Operations, 267-294.
11. Nabti, Najwa (2015), Increasing the Cost of Rape: Using Targeted Sanctions to Deter Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict, in Marossi, Ali, Sanctions Under International Law, Springer.
12. Pigaroff, Donald & Darryl Robinson (21016), Article 30, in Otto Triffterer and Kai Ambos (eds), The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, C.H. Beck, Hart Nomos.
13. Sadat Meydani, Hossein, and Mahdi Khalili (2019), Legal Principles of the US Sanctions: Iran Sanctions, Tehran, Tehran, Shahre Danesh (In Persian).
14. Schabas, William (2016). A Commentary on the Rome Statute, Oxford University Press.
15. Simma, Bruno and Daniel-Erasmus Khan, Georg Nolte (2012), The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary, Volume II, Oxford University Press.
16. Stahn, Carsten (2019), A critical Introduction to International Criminal Law, Cambridge University Press.
17. Ziaie, Yaser, Legitimacy of US Unilateral Sanctions against Iran, in Ranjbaraian and Zamani (Eds) (2017), Iran and Challenges of Contemporary International Law, Tehran, Shahre Danesh (In Persian).
 
B) Articles
18. Conley Bridget and Alex de Wall (2019), The Purposes of Starvation Historical and Contemporary Use”, Journal of International Criminal Justice 17, pp. 699-722.
19. Hudson, Andrew (2007), “Not a Great Asset: The UN Security Council's Counter-TerrorismRegime: Violating Human Right”, Berkeley Journal of International Law 25, pp. 203-227.
20. Ilieva, Jana and Aleksandar Dashtevski and Filip Kokotovic (2018). “Economic Sanctions in International Law”, UTMS Journal of Economics 9, pp. 201–211.
21. Luban, David (2004), “A Theory of Crimes Against Humanity”, Yale Law Journal 16, pp. 85-167.
22. Mousavi and Jokar, US Unilateral Sanctions against Iran (2014), Public Law Research, pp. 150-173 (In Persian).
23. Reinisch, August (2001). »Developing Human Rights and Humanitarian Law Accountability of the Security Council for the Imposition of Economic Sanctions«, American Journal of International Law 95, pp. 851–53.
24. Zakerhossein Mohammad Hadi (2018), Thematic Prosecution Doctrine as a Factor in the Gravity Assessment at the International Criminal Court, 48 Criminal Law and Criminology Studies, pp. 85-106 (In Persian).
25. Zamani, Ghasem and Shahbazi, Aramesh (2017), Unilateral Sanctions against Iran in the context of International Criminal Law: Crime against Humanity?, 4 The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Research, pp. 87-106 (In Persian).
 
C) Cases
26. ECCC, 26 July 2010, Duch case, Judgement.
27. ICC Kaul, 31 March 2010. Kenya Situation, Dissenting Opinion of Judge Hans-Peter Kaul.
28. ICC, 1 March 2012, Hussein, Decision on the Prosecutors application under article 58 related to Abdel Raheem Hussein.
29. ICC, 10 February 2006, Lubanga case.
30. ICC, 14 March 2012, Lubanga case, Judgment pursuant to Article 74 of the Statute.
31. ICC, 15 June 2009, Gombo case, Decision on the Confirmation of Charges.
32. ICC, 18 October 2013, Kenyatta case, Decision on Defense Request for Conditional Excusal from Continuous Presence at Trial.
33. ICC, 23 January 2012, Kenyatta case, Decision on the Confirmation of Charges Pursuant to Article 61(7)(a) and (b).
34. ICC, 23 January 2012, Muthaura case, Decision on the Confirmations of Charges .
35. ICC, 23 March 2016, Ongwen case, Decision on the Confirmation of Charges.
36. ICC, 29 January 2007, Lubanga case, Decision on the Confirmation of Charges.
37. ICC, 30 September 2008, Katanga case, Decision on the Confirmation of the Charges.
38. ICC, 4 January 2017, Ntaganda case, Second Decision on the Defense’s Challenge to the Jurisdiction of the Court in Respect of Counts 6 and 9.
39. ICC, 4 March 2009, Bashir case, Decision on the Prosecutor’s Application for a Warrant of Arrest against Al Bashir.
40. ICC, 7 March 2014, Katanga case, Judgment.
41. ICC, 8 July 2005, Ongwen case, Warrant of Arrest for Dominic Ongwen.
42. ICC, OTP, 21 February 2020, Venezuela situation II, Prosecution’s provision of an English translation of the Referral submitted by the Government of Venezuela.
43. ICC, OTP, 4 March 2020, Venezuela situation II, Prosecution’s Provision of the Supporting Document of the Referral Submitted by the Government of Venezuela.
44. ICJ, 16 July 2018, Iran v. US. (Alleged Violations of the Amity Treaty) Application Instituting Proceedings.
45. ICTR, 13 December 2004, Ntakirutimana case, Judgment.
46. ICTR, 2 September 1998, Akayesu case, Judgment.
47. ICTR, 21 May 1999, Kayishema case.
48. ICTR, 28 November 2007, Nahimana et al. case, Appeals Judgment.
49. ICTY, 12 June 2002, Kunarac case, Appels Judgment.
50. ICTY, 14 January 2000, Kupreskic case, Judgment.
51. ICTY, 2 August 2001, Krstić case.
52. ICTY, 22 March 2006, Stakic case, Judgment.
53. ICTY, 26 February 2001, Kordić case.
54. ICTY, 28 October 2013, Banović case, Sentencing Judgment.
55. ICTY, 3 March 2000, Blaškić case, Judgment.
56. ICTY, 7 May 1997, Tadic case, Opinion and Judgment.
 
Documents
57. Human Rights Watch (2019), Maximum Pressure: US Economic Sanctions Harm Iranians’ Right to Health.
58. Human Rights Watch (6 April 2020). US: Ease Sanctions on Iran in COVID-19 Crisis
59. Katzman Kenneth (18 April 2018), Iran Sanctions, Congressional Research Service.
60. The Washington Post (17 November 2018). Fresh sanctions on Iran are already choking off medicine imports, economists say.
61. UNGA Resolution (2020), Human Rights and Unilateral Coercive Measures.
62. UNHRC (8 November 2018). Civilians caught in sanctions crossfire need Geneva Convention protection, says UN expert.
63. United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court (June-July 1998).
64. US Department of State (13 February 2019). Interview With Roxana Saberi of CBS News.
65. US, (2 November 2018). Department of State, Briefing on Iran Sanctions.
66. US, (21 May 2016). Department of State, After the Deal: A New Iran Strategy.
67. US, (23 January 2019). Department of State Interview with Martha MacCallum of Fox News.