دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

نوع مقاله : علمی-پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه حقوق بین‌الملل، پردیس بین‌المللی کیش دانشگاه تهران، کیش، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری حقوق بین‌الملل، پردیس بین‌المللی کیش دانشگاه تهران، کیش، ایران

چکیده

بی‌طرفی قضات دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری از الزامات استقلال قضایی آن است و نحوة انتخاب قضات از جمله عوامل مهم تضمین یا خدشه‌دار شدن بی‌طرفی آنهاست. هدف اساسی از مقررات مربوط به نحوة انتخاب قضات دیوان، ممانعت از دخالت مستقیم دولت‌ها در این فرایند به‌منظور تضمین بی‌طرفی قضات و تمامیت دیوان است. این امر در مرحلة اول از طریق وارد کردن گروه‌های ملی دیوان دائمی داوری برای معرفی کاندیدها و ایجاد سیستمی غیرمستقیم به‌منظور جلوگیری از دخالت مستقیم دولت‌ها، و پیش‌بینی سیستم دوگانة انتخابات یعنی دخالت مجمع عمومی و شورای امنیت در انتخاب قضات در مرحلة دوم، صورت می‌گیرد. دخالت دو رکن مزبور بیانگر سازش میان تفکر و منافع دولت‌های قدرتمند در داشتن نماینده در دیوان و تفکر و منافع سایر دولت‌ها در قرار گرفتن در شرایط برابر با دول مزبور است. این مقاله با بررسی جداگانۀ هریک از این مراحل در فرایند انتخاب قضات دیوان درصدد یافتن پاسخ این پرسش است که آیا سیستم انتخاب قضات دیوان و عملکرد آن به‌گونه‌ای است که مانع دخالت قدرت سیاسی دولت‌ها و در نتیجه، تضمین و حفظ بی‌طرفی قضات دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری شود؟

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of the Election System of the Judges of the International Court of Justice in Ensuring Its Judicial Independence

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farideh Shaygan 1
  • Davod Zaheri 2

1 Associate Professor, Department of Law, University of Tehran Kish International Campus, Kish, Iran

2 Ph.D. Student in International Law, University of Tehran Kish International Campus, Kish, Iran

چکیده [English]

The Impartiality of the judges of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is one of the requirements of its judicial independence. The procedure of electing ICJ judges is an important factor in ensuring their impartiality. The main purpose of the UN Charter’s provisions on the election of ICJ judges is to prevent the interference of governments in the process in order to ensure the integrity of the Court. This is done, in the first stage, by nomination of the candidates through the national groups of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and a dual election system involving the General Assembly and the Security Council, in the second stage. The involvement of these two organs reflects a compromise between the thinking and interests of powerful states in having their own judges in the Court and the interests of other states who wished to be on an equal footing with the great powers. This article examines each of these steps in the process of electing judges, and seeks to answer whether the system of electing ICJ judges and its functionality is such that it can prevent the political interference of governments, and consequently, ensure and maintain the impartiality of the judges.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Judicial Independence
  • re-election
  • system of dual election
  • impartiality of judges
  • national groups
  1. فارسی

الف) کتاب‌ها

  1. ضیائی بیگدلی، محمدرضا (1381)، حقوق بین‌الملل عمومی، چ پانزدهم، تهران: گنج دانش.
  2. موسی‌زاده، رضا (1388)، سازمان‌های بین‌المللی، چ دوازدهم، تهران: میزان.
  3. ممتاز، جمشید؛ شایگان، فریده (1393)، حقوق بین‌الملل بشردوستانه در برابر چالش‌های مخاصمات مسلحانة عصر حاضر، چ اول، تهران: مؤسسة مطالعات و پژوهش‌های حقوقی شهر دانش.

 

ب) مقالات

  1. عزیزی، ستار (1387)، «استقلال کوزوو: بررسی مشروعیت جدایی یکجانبه در حقوق بین‌الملل»، مجلة حقوقی، نشریۀ مرکز امور حقوقی بین‌المللی معاونت حقوقی و امور مجلس ریاست جمهوری، ش 38، ص 45-11.
  2. مصفا، نسرین (1389)، «اصلاحات در دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری»، مجموعه مقالات همایش نقش دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری در تداوم و توسعة حقوق بین‌الملل، تهران: انجمن ایرانی مطالعات سازمان ملل متحد، ص 231-221.
  3. نجفی اسفاد، مرتضی؛ هادی، مهدی (1384)، «ضمانت اجرایی آرای دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری»، نامة حقوقی، ج 1، ش 2، ص 48-25.

 

ج) سایر

  1. جمشید، ممتاز، حق تعیین سرنوشت ملت‌ها در پرتو نظر مشورتی دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری در قضیة کوزوو، سخنرانی در میزگرد انجمن ایرانی مطالعات سازمان ملل متحد، قابل دسترسی در: http://diplomatist.blogfa.com/post/723

 

  1. انگلیسی

 

  1. A) Books
  2. Forlati, Serena (2014), The International Court of Justice, an Arbitral Tribunal or a Judicial Body?, Springer.
  3. Mackenzie, R., K. Malleson, P. Martin and P. Sands (2010), Selecting International Judges: Principle, Process and Politics, Oxford University Press.
  4. Momtaz DJamchid and Shaygan Farideh (2014), International Humanitarian Law in the Face of the Challenges of Armed Conflict of the Present Edition, First Edition, Shahr-e-Danesh Institute for Legal Studies and Research (In Persian).
  5. Musazadeh, Reza (2009), International Organizations, Twelfth Edition, Mizan Publishing (In Persian).
  6. Rosenne, Shabatai (2006), The Law and Practice of the International Court 1920-2005, Vol. I, Leiden/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  7. Ziaei Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza (2002), Public International Law, Fifteenth Edition, Danesh Publishing (In Persian).
  8. Zimmermann, Dominik (2014), The Independence of International Courts: The Adherence of the International Judiciary to a Fundamental Value of the Administration of Justice, Nomos/Hart.

 

  1. B) Articles
  2. Azizi, Sattar (1387), "Kosovo Independence: A Review of the Legitimacy of Unilateral Separation in International Law", Law Journal, Journal of the Center for International Legal Affairs, Vice President for Legal Affairs and Parliamentary Affairs, No. 38, pp. 11-45 (In Persian).
  3. Aznar-Gomez, Mariano J. (2012), “Article 2”, in: Zimmermann, Andreas, Tomuschat Christian, Oellers-Frahm Karin, J.Tams Christin, The Statute of the International Court of Justice, Oxford University Press, pp.254-261.
  4. Baetens, F. & Kluwen, Tim (2018);" International Court of Justice ", in: …. John Wiley & Sons.
  5. Benvenisti, Eyal & Downs George W., (2011), "Prospects for the Increased Independence of International Tribunals", German Law Journal, Vol.12, No.5, pp.1057-1081.
  6. Bianchi, Andrea (2017), "Choice and (the Awarness of) its Consequences: The ICJ’s “Structural Bias” Strikes Again in the Marshall Islands Case", AJIL Unbound, Vol.111, pp.81-87
  7. Fassbender, Bardo (2012a), “Article 9”, in: Zimmermann Andreas, Tomuschat Christian, Oellers-Frahm Karin, J.Tams Christin, The Statute of the International Court of Justice", Oxford University Press, pp.295-314.
  8. ----------------------- (2012b), “Article 10”, in: Zimmermann Andreas, Tomuschat Christian, Oellers-Frahm Karin, J.Tams Christin, The Statute of the International Court of Justice", Oxford University Press, pp.315-323.
  9. Georget, Patricia; Golitsyn, Vladimir & Zacklin, Ralph (2012), “ Article 4”, in: Zimmermann Andreas, Tomuschat Christian, Oellers-Frahm Karin, J.Tams Christin, The Statute of the International Court of Justice: A Commentary, Oxford University press, pp.266-279.
  10. Georget, Patricia; Golitsyn, Vladimir & Zacklin, Ralph (2012), “ Article 5”, in: Zimmermann Andreas, Tomuschat Christian, Oellers-Frahm Karin, J.Tams Christin, The Statute of the International Court of Justice: A Commentary, Oxford University press, pp.280-285.
  11. Georget, Patricia; Golitsyn, Vladimir & Zacklin, Ralph (2012), “ Article 8”, in: Zimmermann Andreas, Tomuschat Christian, Oellers-Frahm Karin, J.Tams Christin, The Statute of the International Court of Justice: A Commentary, Oxford University press, pp.292-294 .
  12. Hernandez, Gleider I., (2012), “Impartiality and Bias at the International Court of Justice”, Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative law, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp.183-207.
  13. Jorritsma, Remy (2018), “National Groups Permanent Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)”, Max Plank Institute Luxembourg. Department of International Law and Dispute Resolution, pp.1-22.
  14. Keith, Kenneth J. (2016), “Challenges to the Independence of the International Judiciary: Reflections on the International Court of Justice, Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp.1-18 .
  15. Keith, Kenneth J. (2010), “The International Court of Justice: Reflections on the Electoral Process”, Chinese Journal of International Law, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp.49-80.
  16. Keith, Kenneth J. (2014), “Challenge to the Independence of the International Judiciary”, Chatham House, pp.1-13.
  17. Lachs, Manfred (1992), “Some Reflections on the Nationality of Judges of the International Court of Justice”, Pace International Law Review, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp.49-68.
  18. Leigh, Monroe & Ramsey, Stephen D. (1987), “Confidence in the Court: It Need Not be a ‘Hollow Chamber’, in the International Court of Justice at a Crossroads”, ed. By Lori Fisler Damrosch, Transnational Publications, 1987, pp. 106-122, pp.108-109
  19. Leigh, Monroe and Ramsey, Stephen D. (1987), “Confidence in the Court: It Need Not be a ‘Hollow Chamber’, in the International Court of Justice at a Crossroads”, ed. By Lori Fisler Damrosch, Transnational Publications, 1987, pp. 106-122. "
  20. Mackenzie, Ruth & Sands, Philippe (2003), “International Courts and Tribunals and the Independence of the International Judge”, Harvard International Law Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 271-286.
  21. Meron, Theodor (2005), “Judicial Independence and Impartiality in International Criminal Tribunals”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 99, No. 2. pp. 359-369.
  22. Moore, Andrew F. (1992), “Ad Hoc Chambers of the international Court and the Question of Intervention”, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, Vol. 24, No., pp. 667-698.
  23. Mosaffa, Nasrin (2010), "Reforms in the International Court of Justice", Proceedings of the Conference on the Role of the International Court of Justice in the Continuity and Development of International Law, Tehran, Iranian Association for United Nations Studies, pp. 231-221 (In Persian).
  24. Najafi Esfad, Morteza and Hadi Mehdi (2005). "Guarantee of Enforcement of the Judgments of the International Court of Justice", Legal Letter, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 48-25 (In Persian).
  25. Obregon, Liliana (2017)," The Third World Judges: Neutrality, Bias or Activism at the Permanent Court of International Justice and International Court of Justice?" ,in: Schabas, William A. and Murphy, Shannonbrooke, Reseach Handbook on International Courts and Tribunals, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, pp.181-200.
  26. Ogbodo, Gozie S. (2012), “An Overview of the Challenges Facing the International Court of Justice in the 21st Century”, Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp.93-113.
  27. Panditarante, Dinusha,"Judicial Impartiality and Independence in the International Court of Justice", Polemic, Vol. 8, No.3., pp. 22-25, available at: https://www. google.com/url?esrc=s&q=&rct=j&sa=U&url=http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/PolemicUSyd/1997/36.pdf&ved=2ahUKEwiqw4TFqdDwAhWWEMAKHZHaAbkQFjALegQIBxAB&usg=AOvVaw35wVfw5o8NoWLLlKIf3z1m. (22 January 220).
  28. Polonskaya, Ksenia (2020), “ Selecting Candidates to the Bench of the World Court: (Inevitable) Politicization and Its Consequences”, Leiden Journal of International Law, Vol. 33, pp. 409-428.
  29. Posner Eric A. and Figueiredo Miguel F. P.de. (2005), "Is the International Court of Justice Biased?", Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 34, pp.599-630.
  30. Posner Eric A. and Yoo John C. (2005), "Judicial Independence in International Tribunals", California Law Review, Vol. 93,No.1, pp.3-74.
  31. Posner, Eric A. (2004), “Is the International Court of Justice Biased?”, Chicago, John M. Olin Law & Economics Working Paper No. 234 (2D SERIES), pp. 3-74.
  32. Rosenne, Shabatai (1987), “The Role of the International Court of Justice in Inter-State Relations Today”, Text of a lecture delivered in the Vriji University Brussel on 8 December, pp. 275-289.
  33. Samore, William (1955), “The World Court Statute and Impartiality of the Judges”, Nebraska Law Review, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 617-629.
  34. Smith, Adam M. (2004), "Judicial Nationalism in International Law: National Identity and Judicial Autonomy at the ICJ", Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 197-231.
  35. Voiget, Stefan (2017), "The Independence of International Courts- Making Reputation Work?", Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 511-530.

 

  1. C) Documents
  2. Conditions under which a State, a Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, But Not a Member of the United Nations, May Participate in the Elections of Members of the Court, UN Doc. A/RES/264(III), 8 October 1948.
  3. Dissenting Opinion of Judge Levi Carneiro attached to the ICJ’s Judgment of 22 July 1952, Anglo-Iranian Oil Co Case, United Kingdom v. Iran, Preliminary Objections, ICJ, Rep. 1952.
  4. Dissenting Opinion of Judge Tarassov attached to the ICJ’s Order of 28 February 1990, Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute Case, El alvador/ Honduras v. Nicaragua Intervening), ICJ, Reports 1990, pp. 11-18.
  5. Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arm Race and to Nuclear Disarmament cases, (Marshall Islands v. United Kingdom, India and Pakistn, ICJ, Rep. 2016.
  6. Separate Opinion of Judge Yusuf attached to the ICJ’s Advisory Opinion of 22 July 2010, ICJ, Rep. 2010.
  7. South West Africa Cases, Ethipia v. South Africa and Liberia v. South Africa, Judgment of 18 July 1966, ICJ, Rep. 1966.
  8. Statute of International Court of Justice
  9. United Nations Information Organizations, UNCIO XIII.

 

  1. D) Others
  2. Jamchid Momtaz, The Right to Self-Determination of Nations in the Light of the International Court of Justice's Advisory Opinion on the Kosovo Case: http://diplomatist.blogfa.com/post/723 (In Persian).